Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is one of the most serious public-health threats to arise from the animal reservoir. It can kill up to 90% of a flock and generate epidemics that can spread quickly, wreaking havoc on the poultry business and putting severe trade restrictions in place. Newcastle disease (NCD) is also a persistent threat to the poultry business and is a limiting illness for poultry farmers around the world. It is one of the most serious diseases in Ethiopia, with high mortality and huge economic losses. For this and the like purposes risk-based surveillance was conducted in selected sites in Oromia, Amhara, and The Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' (SNNP) regions rift valley water body areas and 5-10 km radius woredas/districts from January to April 2019. The goal was to assess the presence or absence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and new castle disease (NCD) in migratory birds and domestic chicken in water body areas, as well as to assess the level of community awareness in the study areas.
Total 6866 samples were collected, including 819 sera samples and 1836 tracheal and cloacal swab samples from backyard domestic chickens within a 5-10 km radius of rift valley lakes, and 4211 fecal droplet samples from wild/migratory birds. Avian influenza serum samples tested by HA/HI and Fecal droplet samples tested by RT PCR came back negative. The results for NDV swab 1336 samples tested by RT PCR were 182 samples positive, and 819 samples tested by HI were 72 samples positive. In the public health aspect, a questionnaire survey was completed by 180 members of the respective community. As a result, the respondents have a solid understanding of the migratory birds that visit their area.
Keywords: HPAI, HI, Migratory birds, NCD, Risk based surveillance, RT- PCR.