African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2201

Full Length Research Paper

Carnosine and cyclosporine A alleviate brain damage after traumatic brain injury in rats

L.M. Faddah1, Nayira A. Abdel Baky1,2,*, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Azza M. Mohamed3,4  and Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt. 3Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 4Theraputic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Egypt.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 17 August 2012
  •  Published: 29 December 2012


The present study investigates the effects of carnosine and/or cyclosporine A (CyA) treatment against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in immature rats. Traumatized rats received carnosine [(200 mg/kg/day, in pre-and post-treatment (i.p.)] for 7 consecutive days following TBI. CyA (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated 15 min and 24 h after TBI. The results revealed that TBI caused sever brain injury indicated by increased nucleotide hydrolysis which was ensured by pronounced increase in ectonucleotidases, NTPDases (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) and 5'-nucleotidase (AMP hydrolysis) in traumatized rats compared with normal animals. TBI also causes elevation of glycolytic enzymatic activities as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) in rats’ brains. In addition TBI pronouncedly reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) in brain tissue as compared to normal animals. Injection of carnosine and/or CyA significantly modulates the altered enzymatic activities. In conclusion, the present data may suggest the beneficial effect of carnosine and/or CyA in protection of brain tissues from disorders induced by traumatic injury.


Key words: Carnosine, cyclosporine A, glutathione reductase, traumatic brain injury (TBI).