African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2188

Full Length Research Paper

“Environmental ritalinization”: Brain structural changes after exposition to methylphenidate residues

Bruna Maraschin
  • Bruna Maraschin
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Celestin Kabasele
  • Celestin Kabasele
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Charise Dallazem Bertol
  • Charise Dallazem Bertol
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Maiara Cristina Soares Paixao
  • Maiara Cristina Soares Paixao
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Natalia Freddo
  • Natalia Freddo
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Marcelo Dutra Arbo
  • Marcelo Dutra Arbo
  • Laboratory of Toxicology (LATOX), Department of Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752/605B, 90610-000, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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Luciana Grazziotin Rossato-Grando
  • Luciana Grazziotin Rossato-Grando
  • Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Passo Fundo, BR 285, 99052-900, Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
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  •  Received: 07 June 2017
  •  Accepted: 04 July 2017
  •  Published: 08 July 2017

Abstract

Methylphenidate, marketed as Ritalin, is an emerged pollutant found in wastewater. Methylphenidate exposure at pharmacological doses can modify brain metabolism, however, the consequences of environmental residues remains to be elucidated. This work presents the results of a chronic exposure to methylphenidate residual levels (0.1875 and 1.875 µg/L) consistent with the amount found in the environment. Animals were exposed to contaminated water during childhood and adolescence. Results evidence significant changes in brain architecture such as decreased cortical and increased striatum relative mass and proteins promoted by methylphenidate. To the best the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that the interference in synaptic plasticity after chronic exposure to environmental levels of methylphenidate is shown.

 

Key words: Ecotoxicology, emerged pollutants, wastewater, neurotoxicology.