African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2183

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical screening and toxicological effects of Amblygonocarpus andongensis aqueous stem bark extract in wistar albino rat

Abdullahi Aliyu Ebbo
  • Abdullahi Aliyu Ebbo
  • Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B. 2346,Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
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Abdullahi Teleh Elsa
  • Abdullahi Teleh Elsa
  • Department of Veterinary Surgery and Diagnostic Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2373,Benue State, Nigeria.
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Emmanuel Udok Etuk
  • Emmanuel Udok Etuk
  • Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B. 2346, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
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Muhammad Jengebe Ladan
  • Muhammad Jengebe Ladan
  • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P. M. B. 2346, Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria.
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Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
  • Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
  • Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 15 January 2019
  •  Accepted: 09 December 2019
  •  Published: 30 June 2020

Abstract

Amblygonocarpus andongenesis is being used as antipsychotic. Hence, it may portend high risk of toxicosis. In view of this, phytochemical screening and toxicological effects of aqueous stem bark extract of the plant was studied in wistar albino rats. Qualitative screening of the stem bark extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, hydrolysable tannin, saponin, glycoside, cardiac glycoside, saponin glycoside and anthraquinone glycoside. Quantitative screening revealed 4.04% alkaloid, 4.94% saponin and 14.38% true tannins. Subchronic dose (900 mg/kg) caused increased and decreased significant levels of basophils and eosinophils (P<0.05) respectively. Serum biochemistry revealed increased alkaline phosphatase level (P<0.05). A mild periportal and perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations of the liver and moderate focal lymphocytic infiltration of the menninges (focal nonsupurative meningitis) which are suggestive of mild toxicity of A. andongensis were observed. Hence, the plant is toxic at dose level of 900 mg/kg body weight when administered for a period of 28 days.

Key words: Toxicity; Amblygonocarpus andongensis, phytochemicals, stem bark, brain, liver, rat.