African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2148

Review

Study on various types of infections related to balanitis in circumcised or uncircumcised male and its causes, symptoms and management

Kingston Rajiah1*, Sajesh K. Veettil1, Suresh Kumar1 and Elizabeth M. Mathew2
1International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur-57000, Malaysia. 2Mallige College of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560090, India.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 28 December 2011
  •  Published: 15 January 2012

Abstract

Balanitis generally affects uncircumcised males characterized by the glans and foreskin becoming red and inflamed. In circumcised men, who lack a foreskin, these symptoms only affect the tip of the penis. The condition often occurs due to the fungus Candida albicans, the same organism that causes vaginal yeast infections in women. The objective of the study is to give a study on various types of infections related to balanitis in circumcised or uncircumcised male and its causes, symptoms and management. A data search was performed using the OVID CD plus Medline 1990 to 2010, using balanitis and balanoposthitis as text word search strategy. Specific subjects, such as anaerobic infection, Zoon's balanitis were sought separately and subgroups combined. Original articles and abstracts were referenced to illustrate each condition. These were English language articles. Balanitis is a common condition among genitourinary medicine clinic attendees, the cause often remaining undiagnosed. Many cases are caused by infection, with Candida being the most frequently diagnosed. However, Gardnerella and anaerobic infections are common, and there are a wide variety of other rare infective causes. In addition, irritant balanitis is probably a contributing factor in many cases. Balanitis which persists and in which the cause remains unclear warrants biopsy.

 

Key words: Balanitis, circumcision, infections.

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