Garlic is one of the most cultivated and medicinal horticultural crops in the world. Its production and productivity is decreased due to different constraints. Knowing the genetic distance will give information to tackle the constraints. This study characterized genetic diversity of garlic germplasm by analysis of eleven Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in 115 garlic accession. Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh leaf tip using modified Diversity Array Technology (DArT) protocol. Touch down polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also used to get optimal annealing temperature for each Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) primers. A number of monomorphic and few polymorphic bands were obtained from eleven SSR markers. The gel pictures show monomorphic bands between genotypes. However, some markers: ASM 080, ASA 20, ASA23, and GB-ASM 053 generated polymorphic bands. Dendrogram of genetic distances amongst all tested genotypes showed three distinct major clusters, and six sub-clusters. This study will guide decision making on introduction of germplasm for enhancing genetic diversity or creation of new variations to improve and widen the genetic base of garlic.
Key words: Garlic, genetic variation, polymorphism.
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