Landlocked countries face significant development challenge merely from their geopolitical position. This is magnificent specifically in terms of their access to the sea. However, some argue that regional arrangements can be promising in solving at least such specific challenge in their development endeavor. In this context, this article reviews real and potential challenges and prospects Ethiopia has to deal with at three levels: domestic, regional, and international levels. Thus, by relaying on secondary data sources and qualitative research method, it highlights the major concerns and developments in the Horn of Africa by focusing on IGAD and COMESA and how different factors at different levels interact to work against or for the success of such projects. Approaching the issue from this angle, it argues that despite the challenges that seem distinct in this specific region, there is new development in this regard that seems promising. However, the sustainability of even this relative success is still dependent on the proper coordination of the dominant actors at all levels than the unilateral commitment of specific state in the region.
Key words: Landlocked countries, regional projects, regional integration.
AfDB: Africa Development Bank
Biz CLIR: Business Climate Legal and Institutional Reform
COMESA: Common Market for East and South Africa
CPA: Comprehensive Peace Agreement
CSOPNU: Civil Society Organization for Peace in Northern Uganda
EAC: East Africa Community
IGAD: Inter Governmental Authority for Development
IGADD: Inter Governmental Authority for Drought and Development
MOI: Ministry Of Information
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Area
RECs: Regional Economic Communities
RPCC: Regional Project Coordination Committee
RTA: Regional Trade Arrangements
SACU: South Africa Customs Union
SADC: South Africa Development Community
USAID: United States Agency for International Development
UN: United Nations
(UN)ECA: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
UNDP: United Nations Development Program
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