African Journal of
Political Science and International Relations

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pol. Sci. Int. Relat.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0832
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPSIR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 382

Full Length Research Paper

Political trust in Botswana’s executive presidency: The Khama era

Batlang Seabo
  • Batlang Seabo
  • Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Botswana, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar
Wilford Molefe
  • Wilford Molefe
  • Department of Statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Botswana, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar
Mpho Molomo
  • Mpho Molomo
  • Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Botswana, Botswana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 03 November 2017
  •  Accepted: 08 August 2018
  •  Published: 31 August 2018


Agresti A (2002). Categorical Data Analysis, Second Edition. Canada: John Wileys and Sons, Inc.


Anderson C, Tverdova Y (2003). Corruption, Political Allegiances, and Attitudes Toward Government In Contemporary Democracies', American Journal of Political Science 47(1):91-109.


Armah–Attoh D, Gyimah-Boadi E, Chikwanha AB (2007). Corruptio and Institutional Trust In Africa: ImplicationsFor Democratic Development', New York, NY: Afrobarometer. 


Blind PK (2006). In Fricker RD, Kulzy W, Combs DJ (2013). 'Modeling Trust in Government: Empirically Assessing the Integrative Model of Organizational Trust'


Bouckaert G, Van de Walle S (2001). Government performance and trust in government. In Ponencia presentada en la Annual Conference of the European Group on Public Administration, Vaasa (Finlandia).


Bratton M, Gymah-Boadi E (2016). 'Do Trustworthy Institutions Matter For Development? Corruption, Trust, and Government Performance in Africa.


Christensen T, Lægreid P (2005). Trust in government: The relative importance of service satisfaction, political factors, and demography. Public Performance & Management Review 28(4):487-511.


De Jager N, Du Toit P (2012). Friend or Foe? Dominant party systems in southern Africa. Cape Town: UCT Press.


Deléchat C, Gaertner M (2008). Exchange rate assessment in a resource-dependent economy: the case of Botswana (No. 2008-2083). International Monetary Fund.


Delhey J, Newton K 2003). Who trusts?: The origins of social trust in seven societies. European Societies 5(2):93-137.


Diamond L (2007). Building trust in government by improving governance. In 7th Global Forum on Reinventing Government: "Building Trust in Government" Sponsored by the United Nations Session V: Elections, Parliament, and Citizen Trust Vienna.


Diepo T (2014). Transparency International: Botswana least corrupt …But public sector corruption on the rise. 



Freedom House. (2015a). Botswana. Available at: 



Freitag M, Traunmüller R (2009). Spheres of trust: An empirical analysis of the foundations of particularised and generalised trust. European Journal of Political Research 48(6):782-803.


Good K (1996). Authoritarian Liberalism: A defining Characteristic of Botswana. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 14(1):29-51.


Good K (1999). Enduring elite democracy in Botswana. Democratization 6(1):50-66.


Good K (2016). Democracy and development in Botswana. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 35(1):113-128.


Gramsci A (1971). Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci: Ed. and Transl. by Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith. International Publishers.


Gwebu T (2011). Implications of Urbanization and Processes in Botswana", (ed) Rolang Majelantle.


Halpern J (1965). South Africa's Hostages: Basutoland, Bechuanaland and Swaziland (Vol. 8). Penguin Books.


Hetherington MJ (2005). Why trust matters: Declining political trust and the demise of American liberalism. Princeton University Press.


Holm J, ad Molutsi P (1989). Democracy in Botswana. Gaborone. Macmillian Press.


Hutchison ML (2011). Territorial threat, mobilization, and political participation in Africa. Conflict Management Peace Science 28(3):183-208.


Independent Electoral Commission (2014) Report to the Minister for Presidential Affairs and Public Administration on the 2014 General Elections. Gaborone: Government Printer.


Inglehart R, Welzel C (2003). Political culture and democracy: Analyzing crosslevel linkages.


Jamil I, Askvik S (2015). Citizens' Trust in Public and Political Institutions in Bangladesh and Nepal. In: Governance in South, Southeast, and East Asia pp. 157-173). Springer International Publishing.


Job J (2005). 'How is Trust in Government Created? It Begins At Home, But Ends in The Parliament', Australian Review of Public Affairs 6(1):1-23.


Landmark M (2016). Trust in public institutions, a comparative study of Botswana and Tanzania (Master's thesis, The University of Bergen).


Lavallée E, Razafindrakoto M, Roubaud F (2008). Corruption and trust in political institutions in sub-Saharan Africa. Afrobarometer.


Leftwich A (1996). Democracy and Development: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Polity Press.


Leith C (2005). Why Botswana Prospered? Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.


Makgala CJ, Botlhomilwe MZ (2017). Elite interests and political participation in Botswana, 1966–2014. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 35(1):54-72.


Maundeni Z, Lotshwao K (2012). Internal organisation of political parties in Botswana. Global Journal of Human-Social Science Research 12(9).


Miller AH (1974). Political Issues and Trust in Government: 1964–1970', American Political Science Review 68(03):951-972.


Mishler W, Rose R (1997). Trust, distrust and skepticism: Popular evaluations of civil and political institutions in post-communist societies. The Journal of Politics 59(2):418-451.


Mo Ibrahim (2015). The 2015 Ibrahim Index of Governance. 



Molomo MG (2000a). Democracy Under Seige: The Presidency and Executive Powers in Botswana," Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 14(1) pp 95-108. Molomo MG (2000b). In Search of an Alternative Electoral System for Botswana," Pula: Botswana Journal of African Studies 14(1):109-121.


Molomo MG (2001). Civil-Military relations in Botswana's Developmental State," Africa Studies Quarterly (the online Journal of African studies) http:/


Newton K (2001). Trust, Social Capital, Civil Society, and Democracy', International Political Science Review 22(2):201-214.


Norris P (1999). Critical Citizens: Global Support For Democratic Government', Oxford University.


Osei-Hwedie BZ (2001). The political opposition in Botswana: The politics of factionalism and fragmentation. Transformation P.45.


Parsons J (1983). The trajectory of class and state in dependent development: the Consequences of new wealth for Botswana. Journal of Commonwealth Comparative Politics 21(3):39-60.


Parsons J (1981). Cattle, Class and state in Rural Botswana," Journal of Southern African Studies 7(2):236-255. Peters P (1984). Struggle over Water, Struggle Over Meaning: Cattle, Water and the State in Botswana" Africa: Journal of international African Institute 54(3):29-49.


Picard LA (1980). Bureaucrats, cattle, and public policy: Land tenure changes in Botswana. Comparative Political Studies 13(3):313-356.


Poteete AR (2012). Electoral competition, factionalism, and persistent party dominance in Botswana. The Journal of Modern African Studies 50(1):75-102.


Poulantzas N (1968). Political power and Social Classes. London: NLB and Shhed and Ward.


Samatar AI (1999). An African miracle: State and class leadership and colonial legacy in Botswana development. Heinemann Educational Books.


Seabo B, Molefe W (2017). The determinants of institutional trust in Botswana's liberal democracy. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 11(3):36-49.


Sebudubudu D, Botlhomilwe MZ (2013). Interrogating the Dominant Party System in Botswana. Friend or Foe pp. 115-131.


Seligson M, Mitchell A, Julio A, Carrión F (2002). Political support, political skepticism, and political stability in new democracies: An empirical examination of mass support for coups d'etat in Peru. Comparative Political Studies 35(1):58-82.


Transparency International (2015). Corruption Perceptions Index.


Tsie B (1996). The political context of Botswana's development performance." Journal of Southern African Studies 22(4):599-616.


Turper S, Aarts K (2015). Political Trust and Sophistication: Taking


Uslaner EM (2003). Trust, democracy and governance: Can government policies influence generalized trust?." Generating social capital. Palgrave Macmillan, New York pp. 171-190.


Welzel C, Inglehart R (2009). Political culture, mass beliefs, and value change. Democratization pp.126-144.