International Journal of
English and Literature

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. English Lit.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2626
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJEL
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 253

Full Length Research Paper

Lyrical life: The prevailing mysticism of the evolution and inevitable putrefaction of the great human race

Faisal Ahmed
  • Faisal Ahmed
  • Department of English, World University of Bangladesh, Panthapath Campus, House-16, Road-7, Dhanmondi, Dhaka- 1205, Bangladesh.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 08 May 2018
  •  Accepted: 26 October 2018
  •  Published: 30 November 2018

 ABSTRACT

“Souls come to light after a fierce fight / among lovely ‘xx or xy’ pairs at day or night” This hypothetical review is regarding the poem “Lyrical Life” which is a fourteen-line poem in a sonnet structure written by the author of this article. This article is intended to share the author’s philosophy of life with that of other scholars and philosophers including pre-Socratic ones around the globe from ancient time to postmodern era. Human life-cycle is always a mystery and up-in-the-air issue to the people of antediluvian age, as well as to that of postmodern era, in fact, till today. The super-mystery is the origin or birth of human beings through sexual intercourse and their various stages of life—innocent infancy, playful childhood, obstreperous adolescence, extreme juvenescence, senescence, and the ultimate consequence of bereavement or quietus. The spectrum of life, and the uncertain circumstances that human beings undergo to sustain and survive is beyond their imagination. The golden segment of life is youth whereas the truest melancholy part of it is decease, demise or death and putrefaction. The ideas of perpetual life after bereavement or death, as well as that of “Demiurge” or CREATOR of the universe linger in religious beliefs of no other animals but human race.

 

Key words: Mystery, evolution, putrefaction, senescence, quietus and demiurge.


 INTRODUCTION

Lyrical Life is a poem intended to paint a portrait of human life-cycle. The poem was written on 16 December, 2016 and published on the section ‘Art and Literature’ in the issue of 10th March 2018, The Daily Observer, a Bangladeshi daily newspaper. The author (Ahmed Faisal, 2018) of the poem and the associated article is a creative writer, researcher and bibliomaniac. He has been teaching English Literature, Language, philosophy and International Relations at tertiary level since the beginning of 2015. His major interests lie in world Literature in English, Philosophy, Metaphysical Poetry, the Colonial and Post-colonial Literature, Sufism, Transcendentalism, the Enlightenment, Skepticism and so forth. Apart from “Lyrical Life”, the author has few other poems most of them written at the end of 2016 and early of 2017.


 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This article is a hypothetical approach to throw light on the forever-riddling-and-unsettled issue of the origin of human beings and the existence of God or Creator. This research article is not intended to put the issue on the burner of controversy in terms of the conflict among theism, atheism and skepticism; rather it is a sacred endeavour to trail the truth  and  a  humble  craving  of  an ordinary human mind to eradicate the misconceptions concerning the sensitive issue. The research method of APA style formatting has been followed for research, compilation and citation of this article. The related information from various sources – authentic books of pre-Socratic philosophers, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the writers like Charles Darwin of Naturalism and Rationalism, the research books and articles of various renowned critics and scholars from various sources including internet – have been utilized to substantiate this article. The writings of prominent literary figures of different literary periods have been referred to in this paper with a view to distinguishing different philosophical and psychoanalytical thoughts on this mystic issue. Some references have also been cited from the Holy Scriptures to discuss and debate this thin-skinned theme from 360 degree angles.
 
The ever-unresolved riddle   
 
Lyrical Life is a poem which lets the readers ponder on the meaning, origin and the aftermath of human lives over and again to hunt answers to a few unresolved questions: is human life meaningless or purposeful?, is there any Creator or superpower God behind all the creations or is it from a cosmic egg fertilized to evolution?, if God exists, where is He and what is the origin of His existence?, why do human beings confront juvenescence, senescence and putrefaction?, why do they have the cycle of birth and death?, what is the mystery behind the origin of living beings or species?, and so on… Throughout the whole poem depicting the three stages of human beings, the poet has made its readers rethink on the life-cycle of human beings along with the origin and the conventional belief of eternal life-after-death held by most of the humans in different religions. The spectrum of life of human beings makes their minds as much colourful as human-mind could imagine. All the sweet and beautiful or sour and ugly, nice and benevolent or awful and barbaric, begetting or producing and slaughtering or violating human beings, animals, things, actions or affairs are true, factual and real; and all the truths are beauty and all the beauties are truth as the English Romantic poet Keats John (2005) said in his poem ‘Ode on A Grecian Urn’, “Beauty is truthtruth beauty,' – that is all / Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know" (p. 939). 
 
Life keeps on flowing and passing in an abstruse motion through innumerable uncertain circumstances whether the human beings endeavour to control it or not. They grow up and decay with the growing and decaying of other creatures of nature. In the period of their childhood and adolescence, they pass their lives very playfully without the least awareness of life’s motives and responsibilities. However, they enjoy the most of their lives and take the most responsibilities in their juvenescence or youth; unfortunately, they have it (youth) only half of their lives as the Victorian era’s poet Browning Robert (2006) expressed in his poem ‘Rabbi Ben Ezra’, “Youth  shows  but  half;   trust   God:   see   all,   nor   be afraid!''/ Not that, amassing flowers, / Youth sighed "Which rose make ours, / Which lily leave and then as best recall?" (p. 1306). Through the passing of the years, youth deteriorates, in fact, disappears and is substituted by senility or old age. Conversely, there is also hope for human race as wisdom and intelligence of senility replaces the obsession of youth. In this regard, Browning (2006) inspired us to grow old and not to be hopeless at the very beginning of his poem ‘Rabbi Ben Ezra’, “Grow old along with me! /The best is yet to be, /The last of life, for which the first was made” (p. 1305). 
 
Nonetheless, an immortal life without youth and wisdom is also mournful, suffering, pointless, agonizing and most excruciating to a man. For this fact, the Victorian poet Tennyson Alfred (2005) also alluded to immortality and mourned for decaying youth as in his mythological-background-base poem ‘Tithonus’, “The woods decay, the woods decay and fall,/ The vapours weep their burthen to the ground,/ Man comes and tills the field and lies beneath, /And after many a summer dies the swan./ Me only cruel immortality/ Consumes: I wither slowly in thine arms.” (p. 1006).
 
The youth is full of spirit, gut, courage and enthusiasm. It makes impossible things or affairs possible. The learning and earning only happen in this golden period of life. All the races, competitions, battles, combats and so on with opponents can be triumphed at only youth. Even the pursuance of worshipping God becomes most effective at this segment of life. The reproduction of human race and other animal occurs at this stage. It is the youth which is glorified the most.
 
The truest wretchedness or melancholy of human life is the senescence and the happening of decease or death. It is docile death which human beings must lay down their arms to. The immortality along with everlasting-youth since antediluvian age has ever been most sought-after desire to all human beings. All philosophy, thoughts, science and technology get a languishment at the point of bereavement or decease. Though human beings know that their birth or origin is due to physical intercourse among opposite sexes, they are unaware of the mechanism of their creation and existence. Moreover, they have no control over their senescence or growing old, disease-at-young-age and death. They do not retain any scientific or rational reason and cognizance regarding the birth, death and the whereabouts of all departing souls; though they have a religious belief on life after demise and on Demiurge or the CREATOR of the universe!
 
In accordance with the naturalists, abiogenists, and evolutionary biologists like Charles Darwin, Oparin, Haldane, Miller, Urey etc, human race including other species emerged, evolved and developed from primordial soup more than 3.5 billion years ago in a hypothetical trace-back in time. ‘Primordial soup, or prebiotic soup is a hypothetical condition of the Earth's atmosphere before the emergence of  life.  It  is  a  chemical  environment  in which the first biological molecules (organic compounds) were formed under natural forces. According to the theory, simple organic compounds were created from non-living inorganic molecules (abiogenesis) through physical and chemical reactions on the Earth's surface’ (“Primordial soup”).
 
The philosophic views on the evolution of humans
 
Philosophy is the only field in which not only humans, earthly beings and objects are studied but also Heavens and celestial bodies are studied simultaneously following a scientific approach. It deals with the origin of humans and the universe along with ethics, morals, physics, metaphysics, ontology, cosmology and epistemology. The great Greek philosophers including pre-Socratic philosophers Thales, Anaximander, Heraclitus, Parmenides, and post-Socratic philosophers including Socrates, Plato and Aristotle gave their views on the emergence of the universe throughout sixth and third century B.C.E. Thales (c. 624 – c. 546 B.C.E.) believed that all things including humans had emerged from single substance water. His disciple Anaximander (c. 610 –c. 546 B.C.E.) disagreed with him and offered a philosophy that all things in the universe came from heat or fire which is calmed by frost in the atmosphere. Democritus (c. 460 – c. 370 B.C.E.) argued that indivisible and invisible atoms are the preliminary source of all things in the universe. However, most of the scientific philosophers gave their consent that all things are different forms of the same molecule amalgamated in different groups. They believed that humans are a combination of four fundamental materials – fire, water, air and clay. Joyce Puglia (n.d.) stated in his article titled “On the Origin of Life: A History of Ancient Greek Theories”, “For a time, Empedocles of Acragas (504 - 433 B.C.E.), brought these long standing arguments to a close. He based his beliefs on what he called the four humors, which were of course, fire, earth, water and air. These basic components of the world originated from a combination of four fundamental qualities which were hot, cold, wet and dry. He postulated that all the world changes were associated with different mixes of the four humors. Plants and animals arose through the functioning of fire which cast up out of the earth’s interior shapeless lumps that formed into man. He declared that growth in infancy depended directly on an increased warmth of the body while decreased warmth produced aging.” The religious views of cosmological biogenesis, during the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.E. were weird as, “There was a belief in the cosmic egg from which all things were said to have been produced at the beginning of the world” (Puglia, n.d.).
 
Regarding the transience of the earth and human life, the most popular reference is Plato’s Allegory of the cave. In this connection, Lavine (1984) stated in his  book From Socrates to Sartre, “Plato illustrates his dualistic theory of reality by his famous Allegory of the Cave, at the beginning of Book VII of the Republic” (p. 27-30). Allegory of the Cave is elucidated as humans are like prisoners and the world is a shadow or illusion of the original substantial heavenly world. The humans are confined in a world of shadow with transience and limitations. With the reference of the Allegory of the Cave, humans are ignorant and corrupt, and they tend naturally to greed, evil power, luster and self-gratification without the knowledge of the real world. Concerning the views of morals, ethics, religious doctrines and demiurge, god or the creator of the universe, Plato made the tripartite soul of every human responsible. He believed that humans’ psyche is made of three components – the logical or ego, the spirited or superego and the appetitive or Id, corresponding to the psychoanalytical theory interpreted by Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud during the early period of Modern era.
 
The Naturalists’ Views: the ancestors of the great human race
 
“The emergence of man from the first forms of life in the primordial soup of oceans, some 3500 million years ago cannot be traced completely. Few fossils exist from more than 570 million years ago, and in any case early forms of life were soft-bodied and therefore left little or no trace. The first forms of life were undoubtedly single-celled creatures, perhaps not unlike the primitive amoeba of today. From these single-celled creatures, known as protozoans, evolved from the metazoans developed the chain of species that culminated in man” (Booth et al., 1986: 10).
 
Nature has been undergoing constant changes throughout the uncertain billions or trillions of years, imposing tremendous effects on the numerous species of living beings and lifeless components, and letting one group of species, large in number and size, rule over another group comparatively smaller in that. The prehistoric approximate dating of remains or fossils have been identified with the invention of radio-carbon or carbon-14 in 1950s by the archeologists following the technique called the principle of stratigraphy which they relied on earlier to estimate the age of any ancient remnants. “Of the 4500 million years or so since the earth’s crust formed, man-like creatures have been present for a mere 14 million years – and our own species, Homo sapiens, emerged only 35,000 years ago” (Booth et al., 1986: 12). In accordance with the research works hypotheses of the archeologists and the abiogenists, the human evolutionary journey has begun with advanced primate, Ramapithecus which lived between 14 and 8 million years ago in Africa, Middle East and Asia. The species, Australopithecus (its brain was smaller  in  size,  500 cc  (cubic   centimeters)),   found  in eastern and southern Africa, next to Ramapithecus, survived between 5 and 1.5 million years ago. This species left the world’s oldest footprints. Overlapping with Australopithecus, The first true human beings, Homo Habilis (meaning ‘Handy Man’) were found in East Africa between 2 to 1.5 million years ago. Homo Habilis are also known as ‘1470 Man’ from the museum number of their skull (brain size 750cc) found in Kenya in 1972.  The fourth stage of evolution was contributed by Homo erectus ‘Upright Man’ (brain size 1000cc) whose remnants were marked in 1891 in Java (an island of Indonesia), existed in Europe, Asia and Africa between about 1.5 and 0.5 million years ago. They hunted large animals and were the first to use fire for cooking food and for keeping themselves warm. The variant of Homo sapiens, Neanderthal Man (brain size was 1500-1600cc, larger than modern man’s) dominated Europe and western Asia between 100,000 and 40,000 years ago (before and during the last ice age). However, they appear to have been an evolutionary dead end; our own species descended from Homo erectus. The sixth and latest species, Homo Sapiens Sapiens (brain size 1400cc) was the earliest known remains of the postmodern humans and they were traced back in France about 35,000 years ago (Booth et. al., 1986: 12-13).
 
Relationship of human brain-size with intelligence
 
The human brain size is studied extendedly in the fields of anatomy and evolution. The human race has been ruling this world and even other planets through scientific and astronomical inventions since the emergence of their ancestors Homo Sapiens Sapiens. However, they are also in a cycle of cranial upsizing and downsizing. The postmodern men are in between the cognitive superpower and cognitive hollowness. Compared to Neanderthal Man, (a variant of Homo Sapiens) who had the biggest size of brain and lived around 30,000 years back, the brain of postmodern men is shrinking at an alarming proportionate. Some biologist and paleoanthropologists are worried concerning the cranial downsizing of postmodern humans though some other scientists are ignoring the fact as they think that the matter does not deserve that kind of attention. Is the great human race going to be vacuum of adequate intelligence to dominate further in near future corresponding to a short turning of cosmological time? In relation to this question, an article appeared in Discover Magazine tried to answer, ‘John Hawks is in the middle of explaining his research on human evolution when he drops a bombshell. Running down a list of changes that have occurred in our skeleton and skull since the Stone Age, the University of Wisconsin anthropologist nonchalantly adds, “And it’s also clear the brain has been shrinking.”  “That  was  true  for  2 million   years   of   our evolution,” Hawks says. “But there has been a reversal.” He rattles off some dismaying numbers: Over the past 20,000 years, the average volume of the human male brain has decreased from 1,500 cubic centimeters to 1,350 cc, losing a chunk the size of a tennis ball. The female brain has shrunk by about the same proportion. “I’d call that major downsizing in an evolutionary eyeblink,” he says. “This happened in China, Europe, Africa-everywhere we look.” If our brain keeps dwindling at that rate over the next 20,000 years, it will start to approach the size of that found in Homo erectus, a relative that lived half a million years ago and had a brain volume of only 1,100 cc.’ (McAuliffe, 2011). The article again gave a shocking reference, ‘Which brings us to an unpleasant possibility. “You may not want to hear this,” says cognitive scientist David Geary of the University of Missouri, “but I think the best explanation for the decline in our brain size is the idiocracy theory.” Geary is referring to the eponymous 2006 film by Mike Judge about an ordinary guy who becomes involved in a hibernation experiment at the dawn of the 21st century. When he wakes up 500 years later, he is easily the smartest person on the dumbed-down planet. “I think something a little bit like that happened to us,” Geary says. In other words, idiocracy is where we are now’ (McAuliffe, 2011).
 
Peril of dumbing-down
 
The extensive usage of technological devices like smart phone, computer games contrivances of artificial intelligence, humanoids etc. by the present generation is closely linked to the warning of dumbing-down of the future generations. What is additional is a danger for future generations to suffer from a disease caused by computer zombie virus. The zombie apocalypse may appear in a new form - in the form of science and technology through the historical recycling of events or epidemics. Besides the rapid advancement, constant antagonism and threats of great wars with nuclear weapons and equipment among superpower countries may bring forth the disastrous awfulness.
 
DNA of all living beings and plants
 
All living beings including animals, humans and plants share the same DNA though their nucleotides are arranged in a different way. Science of nature and evolution has by now proved that all the creatures in the earth emerged from a single cell. Relating to the difference of the DNA between animals and plants, Hui et al. (n.d.), in a combined research, wrote, “There are a few differences between plants and animals. However, at the chemical level, the cells of all animals and plants contain DNA in the same shape – the famous “double  helix”  that looks like a twisted ladder. Both Animal DNA and Plant DNA molecules are made from the same four chemical building blocks – called nucleotides. Hui et al. (n.d.) further stated regarding the dissimilarities of animal DNA and plants DNA, “The difference between Animal DNA and Plant DNA is how the four nucleotides in DNA are arranged. It is their sequence that determines which proteins will be made. The way the nucleotides are arranged, and the information they encode, decides whether the organism will produce scales or leaves – legs or a stalk.”
 
Gender-determination chromosomes
 
Though the Aristotelian heat theory of males upon females settled in reptiles for determining reproduced sexes among animals, the natural scientists were facilitated by him (Aristotle) to reveal the fact that humans gender determination (males, females or hermaphrodites) caused by specific sex chromosomes in the body of humans and animals after hundreds of years’ research and during the very twentieth century. A new reproduced soul develops from the nucleotides of its parents through the development of mitosis and meiosis in the series of chromosomes. Ubeda F et al. (2014) Wild wrote in a research on the origin of sex chromosomes, “Most animals and many plants make use of specialized chromosomes (sex chromosomes) to determine an individual's sex. Best known are the XY and ZW sex-determination systems.” In another research statement on genetic determination conducted by Hake L and O’Connor (2008), it was found as, “Sex determination results in the development of individuals with characteristics that allow them to be identified as males, females, or in some cases, hermaphrodites. In certain species, like the solid nematode C. elegans, differences in sexual characteristics can be very small; in fact, in C. elegans, the only distinguishing sexual characteristic is the presence of a testis versus an ovotestis.”
 
Beliefs and myths of evolution in holy scriptures
 
Throughout millions of years, a struggle to survive and make the human life a meaningful one, there has been a constant combat of men against adverse nature and its inscrutability since their evolution. The superego of humans provides a space for accommodating and distinguishing amongst morality and immorality, right and wrong, good and evil, truths and lies, earthly and heavenly, death and resurrection, transience and eternity and so forth. The religions in humans of the planet Earth, unlike science, have made men great so far in attributes and provided them with different doctrines, ethics, brotherhoods, sisterhoods, disciplines, obedience, stability and peace of mind  in  solitude  or  tranquility,  as well as superstitions and complexities in human society. Notwithstanding the fact, likewise history, archeology, philosophy and science religion itself is a part or has become a part of human lives. Now they are wise to maintain equilibrium amongst these issues rater than to cut off one of these fields (specifically religion for example) utterly. The Holy Scriptures suggest humans, in their plight of illusion of this worldly life, that there is significance of human life rather than to be meaningless one. Regarding the purpose behind the creation of humans, God says in the Bible, “But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praise of Him who called you out of darkness into His light” (Peter 2: 9). Revolving the reason behind the purpose of the evolution of humans, in Holy Quran, Allah says, “[Remember] when your Lord extracted from the loins of Adam’s children their descendants and made them testify [saying]: ‘Am I not your Lord?’  They said: ‘Yes, we testify to it.’  [This was] in case you say on the Day of Judgment: ‘We were unaware of this.’ Or you say: ‘It was our ancestors who worshipped others besides God and we are only their descendants. Will you then destroy us for what those liars did?’” (Quran 7: 172). In connection to this, G-d says in Torah, “The purpose of the creation of every Jew and of all the worlds is to make a dwelling place for G‑d in this world.” [Tanya Ch. 33]. However Hinduism (a religion of polytheism) responses to Darwinian theory of human evolution corresponding to the reference of their scripture called Veda. ‘Darwin's Theory of Evolution held the notion that all life is related and has descended from a common ancestor: the birds and the bananas, the fishes and the flowers — all related. Darwin's general theory presumes the development of life from non-life and stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected) "descent with modification". That is, complex creatures evolve from more simplistic ancestors naturally over time’ (“Darwin’s Theory of Evolution”, n.d.). Veda’s reference to human evolution, likewise Darwinian evolution, suggests that humans have had the form of today after undergoing different avatars or shapes of their significant god Vishnu throughout millions of years. Corresponding to Darwinian Chordates, Hindu god Vishnu had Matsya avatar or the form of human connected to the rear half of a fish. That was the first form of ten primarily taken forms of Hindu god Vishnu. The succeeding avatar of god Vishnu was Kurma avatar, meaning ‘turtle like human’, is believed to have a connection with Darwinian Tetrapodes. The third avatar of Vishnu, relating to Darwinian mammals, was the Varaha or the shape of the boar-face human. Darwinian partially Bi-Pedalled Primates was referred to Vishnu’s Narasimha avatar often visualized as half man/half lion, having a human-like torso and lower body, with a lion-like face and claws. The Narasimha avatar is one of Hinduism's most popular deities, as evidenced in early epics, iconography, and temple and festival worship for over a millennium. Darwinian Hominidae Dwarfs or Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit" and "Flo") is widely believed to be an extinct species in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual that would have stood about 3.5 feet (1.1 m) in height were discovered in 2003 on the island of Flores in Indonesia. Vamana which means ‘dwarf’, is described in the Puranas as the fifth avatar of Vishnu, believed to be relating to Hominidae Dwarfs and the first incarnation of the Second Age or Treta yuga. He is the first avatar to appear with anthropomorphic features, although he does appear as a dwarf Namboothiri Brahmin. He is also known as Upendra and Trivikrama. Parshuram, the sixth avatar of Vishnu, who is son of Renuka and the saptarishi (seven great yogis or sages) Jamadagni as referred in Veda, the Hindu scripture. He lived during the last Treta Yuga (the Second Age out of the four ages of mankind believed in Hinduism), and is one of the seven immortals or Chiranjivi, of Hinduism. Hindu scholars believe that Parshuram avatar of Hindu god Vishnu is connected to Homo Erectus of Darwin’s theory. The succeeding Vishnu’s avatar Rama, a king of Ayodhya in Hindu scriptures, is corresponding to Darwinian Homo Sapiens. Rama is also the protagonist of the Hindu epic Ramayana, which narrates his supremacy. ‘Rama is one of the many popular figures and deities in Hinduism, specifically Vaishnavism and Vaishnava religious scriptures in South and Southeast Asia. Along with Krishna, Rama is considered to be one of the most important avatars of Vishnu. In a few Rama-centric sects, he is considered the Supreme Being, rather than an avatar’ (Rajguru, 2014).
 
Cosmic time in holy scriptures
 
According to the Theory of Relativity discovered by Einstein, the difference between two events does not depend on time and places rather it depends on the nature, configuration and motion of the bodies. Cosmic time is referred to after the Big Bang (the rapid expansion of matters which marks the origin of the universe in cosmological theories). Regarding the substantial existence of time, there is a reference in Q and A website titled ‘Quora’, “We measure duration, like we measure heat, referencing vibrations of one sort or another, that we arbitrarily choose for convenience-the constancy of some property. Time is not in any sense an actual thing. If nothing exists, there is nothing to relate to, nothing to vibrate. If there is nothing to endure, there is no duration; there can be no relative-time. In absence of physical things, time as we understand it, cannot exist in any meaningful, conventional sense. It is by this reasoning that the big-bang is reckoned to be the beginning of time. If time does not exist until the cosmos does, maybe it is cosmic time that starts at the big-bang. Is it conceivable that we are at 13.8 billion cosmic time?” (Tieckelmann, 2018). Is there anything possible before Big  Bang?  This is a controversial issue and many scientists and scholars have different views in this connection. Tieckelmann (2018) again wrote, “Confusing relative-time with sequentiality leads to some absurd conclusions. According to the big-bang hypothesis, time in the sense we think of it, duration, begins at the big-bang and so most physicists believe, even thinking about anything existing before the big-bang becomes impossible. That is because there is no time before the big-bang in which anything can exist; nor are there any pre-existing conditions that can exist in any way that we can possibly think about. Sequential-time says, even if there was a big-bang, something preceded it’ (Tieckelmann, 2018).
 
In holy Quran, Allah said, “Your Lord is God [Allah] Who created the heavens and the earth in six days” (Quran, 7:54). In chapter 7, within two consecutive verses Allah (the name of God in Islam) again repeated the fact with a hint of resurrection and the reason behind the creation of humans, the sun and the moon, “Indeed, your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then established Himself above the Throne, arranging the matter [of His creation]. There is no intercessor except after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Then will you not remember? To Him is your return all together. [It is] the promise of Allah [which is] truth. Indeed, He begins the [process of] creation and then repeats it that He may reward those who have believed and done righteous deeds, in justice. But those who disbelieved will have a drink of scalding water and a painful punishment for what they used to deny” (Quran, 10: 3-4).
 
God created the sun and the moon with a purpose and that is for the convenience of humans to calculate and count the time of date, month, year, century and millennium; in this regard He said, “It is He who made the sun radiant, and the moon a light, and determined phases for it—that you may know the number of years and the calculation. God did not create all this except with truth. He details the revelations for a people who know” (Quran, 10:5). Allah himself explained, in chapter 32, the relativity and difference between the earthly time humans count and that of cosmic time related to the life-after-death or after resurrection; He said, ". . . in a period of time (yaum) whereof the measure is a thousand years of your reckoning" (Quran, 32:5). That denotes one thousand years of earthly time being equal to a day of the cosmic time relatively meant to God.
 
Whereas in the Bible, God said, “In the beginning, God created the universe. When the earth was as yet unformed and desolate, with the surface of the ocean depths shrouded in darkness, and while the Spirit of God was hovering over the surface of the waters, God said, “Let there be light!” So there was light. God saw that the light  was  beautiful.  He  separated  the   light   from   the darkness, calling the light “day,” and the darkness “night”” (Bible, Genesis 1:1-5). On the very first day God created night and day; then He produced sky and sea on the second day; land and vegetation were made existed on the third day; He made, on day four, stars, sun and the moon; on the fifth day, sea creatures including fishes and birds were generated by Him; and mankind and animals were created by Him on the sixth day; The day seven was allocated for rest. ‘In contrast to the Old Testament, the Quran does not provide a unified description of the Creation. Instead of a continuous narration, there are passages scattered all over the Book which deal with certain aspects of the Creation and provide information on the successive events marking its development with varying degrees of detail’ (“The Creation of the Heavens and the Earth”, n. d.). ‘There is absolutely no ambiguity whatsoever in the Biblical description with that of the holy Quran of the Creation in six days followed by a day of rest, the sabbath, analogous with the days of the week. It has been shown how this mode of narration practiced by the priests of the Sixth century B.C. served the purpose of encouraging the people to observe the sabbath. All Jews were expected to rest ['Sabbath' in Hebrew means 'to rest'.] on the sabbath as the Lord had done after He had laboured during the six days of the week’ (“The creation of the Heavens and the Earth”, n. d.). However, the reference of the creation in six days mentioned in holy Quran is a bit contradicting with the statement in the Bible, corresponding to Jewish scripture. Complying with the statement of the Bible, according to Christian scholars, God created everything in heavens and earth within six days and He took rest on the seventh day. Against this, the contradicting reference from the holy Quran is that the Almighty Allah is beyond any usual exhaustion and drowsiness; He never ever needs either sleep or rest, as he declared, “Allah - there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great” (Quran, 2:255).
 
Ancient demiurge
 
In the pre-Socratic and Socratic eras, the people of pagan religious views believed in polytheism. They named the god, who created the physical universe, ‘demiurge’ a Greek word meaning ‘creator’. ‘In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure  responsible  for  fashioning  and maintaining the physical universe. The Gnostics adopted the term "demiurge"’ (Wikipedia contributors, 2018).


 CONCLUSION

The evolution of human race is not a verity of centuries or millennia; rather it is a cycle of cosmological time of the universe. No other generations or communities of the humans, except the pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales of Miletus, Heraclitus, Anaximander and others, thought, as pioneers, so deeply of the origin of this universe, sun-eclipse, religious views, demiurge or the creator of the universe and other philosophical phenomena in scientific approaches.  After them, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle were among the greatest to seek for the truth violating their contemporary religious beliefs and misconceptions. Before them the Egyptians and other civilizations of mankind practiced weird customs and rituals without any rationality, and they worshipped their gods and goddesses in accordance with their own conjectures. In the 21st century humans has come so far struggling with these mystic as well as sensitive issues. Religions, science, archeology, astronomy and other fields have been connected with the people of the earth so closely that they can no longer disregard any of those fields. As both the naturalism and the supernaturalism bring to fruition of the humans resembling the whole of a spirit or soul in a physique or body, so they necessitate upholding symmetry between religion or mysticism and science or rationality. However as judicious beings, they must pursue the truth of the nuance of life with showing reverence to every single philosophic, scientific and theological phenomenon of their life. Whether they will be able to trounce the facts of their dejection – origin, transience, senescence, death, petrifaction, transformation and undertone of life - or not, these confrontations are relinquished to be resolute to the intellectuals in the prevailing and the generations of the upcoming interims of the whole human race. Humans are still in bewilderment whether any other preceding or succeeding species, with more intelligence and cognizance than them, ruled or shall rule the world, as they have been presiding over other species till now since the emergence of their ancestors Homo Sapiens Sapiens, or not. Notwithstanding the fact, they have still buoyancy for the sun of better days to ascend and rhapsodize over their juvenescence with obsession and senectitude with insight and astuteness.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author has not declared any conflict of interests.



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