Practices and constraints of pig farming in the area of N'Djamena were submitted to transversal and retrospective and longitudinal investigation. The study concerned a sample of 176 farmers, divided in 4 of the 5 districts where pigs are raised in N'Djamena and 12 surrounding villages. The survey rate was 12% in N’Djamena and 20% in the suburban area. The monitoring concerned 8 farms in the city and 7 at its periphery during one year. Older farmers numbers or ages averaged 43.8±13.7 years were plant producers (52%), employees (24%), small traders, workers and artisans (11%), students and pupils (9%) and retired persons (4%). The constitution of herds by buying pigs was dominant in urban (85%) and suburban (89%) farming systems. Most of the farms (97%) had piggeries but 53% were in defective conditions. The alcohol residues (99%) and artisanal spent grains (67%) were the basic feeds served mostly 2 times a day (67%). Average litter size at farrowing, piglets born-alive and numerical productivity per year per sow were significantly higher (p<0.05) for breeders who used mineral (sodium carbonate and sodium chloride) supplementation. Theft (45%) and mortality (41%) represented the larger part of the 1,350 annual losses of the farms. Respiratory and digestive symptoms dominated (62%) in the monitored farms. These symptoms are related to the bad conditions of piggeries and scavenging pigs. Improvement of reproductive and numerical productivity by mineral supplementation appears interesting; and suggests further studies on this aspect to provide advices to producers. Knowledge of practices and constraints of pig farms are of great importance for the production improvement actions.
Key words: Pig breeding, production practices, constraints, N'Djamena, Chad.
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