In the face of recent improvements in neonatal care, the influences of neonatal sepsis remain a public health problem in developing countries. Thus, identifying the determinants of neonatal sepsis is an indispensable matter of enhancing neonatal care. Therefore, this study intends to identify the determinants of neonatal sepsis among neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Jinka General Hospital in Southern Ethiopia. An institution-based case-control study was conducted from September to October 2017. A total of 335 neonates who were admitted at Jinka General Hospital were incorporated. Cases (n=112) were neonates who were with sepsis and their mother. Controls (n=223) were neonates who were not with neonatal sepsis and their mother. Study participants were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of neonatal sepsis. A total of 335 (112 cases and 223 controls) medical charts of neonates with their index mother was reviewed. History of urinary tract infection during the index pregnancy [AOR= 4.47, 95% CI (2.06, 9.71)], prolonged rupture of membrane [AOR= 2.2, 95% CI (1.24, 3.92)], birth weight of neonate less than 2.5kg [AOR= 1.68, 95% CI (1.25, 3.75)] and birth asphyxia [AOR= 2.34, 95% CI (1.14, 4.81)] were identified as determinants of neonatal sepsis. This study concludes that history of urinary tract infection, prolonged rupture of membrane, birth weight of neonate and birth asphyxia were the independent determinants of neonatal sepsis. Therefore, preventive efforts of neonatal sepsis should focus on high-risk neonates such as neonate born from mothers who have of urinary tract infection and prolonged rupture of membranes, a neonate with low birth weight and neonate who developed neonatal asphyxia by careful monitoring and follow-up as well as by prudently treating the victims.
Key words: Neonatal sepsis, determinants of neonatal sepsis, neonatal intensive care unit.
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