International Journal of
Nursing and Midwifery

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nurs. Midwifery
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2456
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 212

Full Length Research Paper

Evidence based practice and critical thinking in nursing education and practice: A scoping review of literature

Katowa-Mukwato Patricia
  • Katowa-Mukwato Patricia
  • Department of Basic and Clinical Nursing Sciences, Schoo l of Nursing Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Chitundu Kabwe
  • Chitundu Kabwe
  • Department of Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing, School of Nursing Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Monde Mercy Wamunyima
  • Monde Mercy Wamunyima
  • Medical Library, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Maimbolwa M Margaret
  • Maimbolwa M Margaret
  • Department of Midwifery, Women and Child Health, School of Nursing Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Jere Linda Dianna
  • Jere Linda Dianna
  • Department of Community and Mental Health, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of University of Malawi, Zomba, Malawi.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 09 July 2022
  •  Accepted: 24 October 2022
  •  Published: 30 November 2022


Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in health is important for patient safety and quality care while Critical Thinking (CT) is a vital prerequisite to evidence based nursing. Despite their importance, in some settings neither EBP nor CT is taught assessed or implemented. This scoping review examined literature related to teaching, learning, assessment and implementation of EBP and application of CT by nursing students and graduates. Arksey and O’Malley framework was used to conduct the scoping review.  PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Joanna Briggs Institute for EBP data bases were searched for studies conducted between 2000 and 2020. Inclusion criteria were adapted from the -Population, Intervention, Professionals and Patients, Outcomes, Health Care settings (PIPOH) framework. Search terms included; evidence based practice, nursing education, nursing practice, critical thinking, methods, barriers, facilitators to teaching, learning, assessing and implementing EBP and CT. A total of 2,303 articles were retried, eventually 37 met the inclusion criteria. Use of non-traditional instructional methods for teaching EBP and CT were documented including Problem Based Learning, concept mapping, simulation, think aloud, critical incidence technique, debates and role-plays, reflective journaling, article analysis, nursing journal clubs and multidisciplinary clinical rounds. Validated tools for assessing EBP and CT Skills included; California Critical Thinking Skills Test, Upton and Upton 2006 EBP questionnaire and Yoon’s 2004 Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. Teaching, assessing EBP and applying CT skills is challenging. Therefore  innovative teaching methods are required to promote learning while successful implementation require strategies to minimize detractors and sustain enablers of the process.

Key words: Evidence-Based Practice nursing, critical thinking, teaching, learning, assessment and implementation.