International Journal of
Nursing and Midwifery

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nurs. Midwifery
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2456
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 212

Full Length Research Paper

The impact of self-management education and exercise intervention on pregnant women’s back pain experiences in low- and middle-income countries

Loveness Nkhata
  • Loveness Nkhata
  • Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P. O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Charity Kapenda
  • Charity Kapenda
  • Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P. O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar
Jane Chela
  • Jane Chela
  • Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P. O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 23 September 2023
  •  Accepted: 08 November 2023
  •  Published: 31 December 2023

Abstract

Pregnancy-related back pain is a frustrating health problem worldwide because of its high prevalence. Approximately 50% of women experience back pain during pregnancy and 25% may continue to experience pain after delivery. The impact of a self-management education and exercise intervention were determined on pregnant women’s back pain experiences in a low- and middle-income setting. The aim was to establish the women’s back pain disability scores before and after the intervention activities. A 12 weeks education and exercise intervention program was conducted using a pre-post-test single sample design. Measurement time-frames for primary and secondary outcomes were at baseline and again at exit. Descriptive analysis of data was conducted, in SPSS version 20.0 and the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire was used to determine back pain disability scores. There were positive changes in all categories measured. The proportion of participants reporting back pain dropped from 36.2% (pre-intervention) to 29.1% (post-intervention). In addition, the percentages of those who scored severe and moderate disability decreased but increased for those who scored minimal disability after the intervention. The education and exercise intervention activities demonstrate a significant impact on the women's back pain experiences because the percentage of women who reported experiencing back pain after the intervention reduced. Also, the proportion of women who scored a minimal disability on the ODIQ increased while the number of women who scored moderate and severe disabilities decreased. This supports the widespread recommendation that pregnant women should be encouraged to exercise and stay informed about the significance of exercise during pregnancy.

Key words: Exercise, pregnancy, back pain, disability, self-management.