International Journal of
Sociology and Anthropology

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Sociol. Anthropol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-988X
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJSA
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 321

Full Length Research Paper

The effect of inter-ethnic cultural relationships on universalism in Iran

Mozhgan Azimi Hashemi
  • Mozhgan Azimi Hashemi
  • Institute for Tourism Research, ACECR, Islamic Republic of Iran.
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Ali Yousofi
  • Ali Yousofi
  • Department of Social Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran.
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Mohammad Reza Hashemi
  • Mohammad Reza Hashemi
  • Department of English Language and Literature, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran.
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  •  Received: 06 March 2017
  •  Accepted: 12 June 2017
  •  Published: 31 July 2017


Iran is a multi-ethnic society. The quality and quantity of relationships between ethnic groups can be regarded as one of the crucial aspects of its integration and cohesion. This paper argues that cultural relationships and exchange of ideas and values among various ethnic groups in Iran gradually leads to the formation of universal values, norms and the broadening of an intellectual viewpoint. This paper reports the results of a survey study conducted on eight ethnic groups in Iran. It illustrates that cultural relationships between ethnic groups promote universalism amongst different ethnic minorities. This study examines the hypothesis that “an increase of inter-ethnic cultural relationships leads to the development of universalism”. Meanwhile, discrimination and ethnocentrism will be especially regarded as prerequisites for establishing inter-ethnic cultural relationships.

Key words: Inter-ethnic relationships, universalism, particularism, multi-ethnic society, ethnicity, intra-ethnic relationships.