Recent increases in the frequency and severity of toxic algae blooms in freshwater lakes has been a major concern for small communities that rely on them for drinking water supply. A hazard quotient approach to risk characterization is employed to analyze the effectiveness of five conventional treatment methods for removal of cyanotoxins. The application of the method for risk assessment and mitigation is demonstrated for five case studies, including Lake Champlain (Quebec), Coal Lake (Alberta), Butte Lake (Alberta), Kubbani Lake (Nigeria) and Bomo Lake (Nigeria).
Key words: Cyanotoxins, human health, hazard quotient, lake water intake, water quality.
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