Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 489


Determinants and challenges of rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia: Qualitative review

Wondim Awoke Kassa
  • Wondim Awoke Kassa
  • Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension, College of Agriculture & Rural Transformation, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 19 July 2018
  •  Accepted: 15 August 2018
  •  Published: 28 February 2019


Aababbo Y, Sawore A (2016). Assessing Determinant Factors of Income Diversification among Rural Farm Households in Ethiopia: The Case of Leemo and Anileemo Districts, Hadiya Zone, South Nation Nationalities People Region. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 5(12):100-110 


Addisu Y (2017). Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Pastoralism: Research Policy and Practice 7:9 


Anshiso D, Shiferaw M (2016). Determinants of Rural Livelihood Diversification: The Case of Rural Households in Lemmo District, Hadiyya Zone of Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 7(5):32-39.


Asfaw A, Simane B, Hassen A, Bantider A (2017) Determinants of non-farm livelihood diversification: evidence from rainfed-dependent smallholder farmers in northcentral Ethiopia (Woleka sub-basin), Development Studies Research 4(1):22-36.


Asfaw A (2018). Review on determinants of sustainable rural livelihood diversification of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. International Journal 23 Advanced Research 6(2):251-259.


Asfir S (2016). Determinants of Rural Households Livelihood Strategies: Evidence from Western Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 7(15):103-109.


Barrett C, Reardon T, Webb P (2001) 'Nonfarm Income Diversification andHousehold Livelihood Strategies in Rural Africa: Concepts, dynamics, and policy implications', Food Policy 26(4):315-31.


Bezabih M, Mannberg A Siba E (2014). The Land Certification Program and Off-Farm Employment in Ethiopia. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series December 2014 EfD DP 14-22.


Dadi W (2016). Livelihood Diversification As Household Strategies. A Case Study of Rural Kebeles Around Gelan Town, Oromia, Ethiopia. Thesis MA in Geography and Environmental Studies Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Davidson E, Goldstraw K, Packham C (2014). Sustainable Livelihood Analysis; An Exploration of the Effects of Austerity on Small Voluntary Groups in the UK, Community Audit and Education Center, MMU.


Debele B, Desta G (2016). Livelihood diversification: strategies, Determinants and Challenges for Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral Communities of Bale Zone, Ethiopia. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities 11(2):37-51.


Demissie A, Legesse B (2013). Determinants of income diversification among rural households: The case of smallholder farmers in Fedis district, Eastern hararghe zone, Ethiopia. Journal Development Agricultural Economic 5(3):120-128.


Echebiri R, Onwusiribe C, Nwaogu D (2017). Effect Of Livelihood Diversification On Food Security Status Of Rural Farm Households In Abia State Nigeria. Scientific Papers Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development 17(1):159-166


Ellis F (2000). Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Ellis F (1998). Household Strategies and Rural Livelihood Diversification. Journal of Development Studies 35(1):1-38.


Gautam Y, Andersen P (2016). Rural livelihood diversification and household well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal. Journal of Rural Studies 44:239-249.


Gecho Y (2017). Rural Farm Households' Income Diversification: The Case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Social Sciences 6(2):45-56. doi: 10.11648/


Idris M (2014). Womens Workload and Their Role in Agricultural Production In Ambo District Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics 6(8):356-362.


IPCC (2007). Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability: Working Group II contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Kassie G, Kim S, Francisco P, Fellizar J (2017). Determinant factors of livelihood diversifcation: Evidence from Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences 3:1369490. 


Kebede M, Haileselassie A, Haile M, Luchia T (2014). Livelihood diversification strategies among men and women rural households: Evidence from two watersheds of Northern Ethiopia. Journal Agricultural Economic Development 3(2):017-025. 



Lemi A (2009). Determinants Of Income Diversification In Rural Ethiopia: Evidence From Panel Data. Ethiopian Journal of Economics18:1.


Mengistie D, Kidane D (2016). Assessment of the Impact of Small-Scale Irrigation on Household Livelihood Improvement at Gubalafto District, North Wollo, Ethiopia. Agriculture 6:27. 


Mengistu S (2016). Challenges of Livelihood Diversification In Pastoral Lands Of Ethiopia: Evidence From South Omo Pastoralists. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 5(9):147-153.


Mentamo M, Geda N (2016). Livelihood diversifcation under severe food insecurity scenario among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District, Southern Ethiopia. Kontakt 18(4):289-295. 


Mulugeta T (2013). Female Headed Households and Their Livelihood in Bati Wäräda, South Wollo: Practices and Resistance Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Tromso, Tromso.


Ofolsha M, Mansingh J (2015). Determinants of Female-headed Households' Diversification Strategies Choice in Ambo District, Ethiopia. Journal of Extension Education 27(2):5424-5430.


Prowse M (2015). The Determinants of Non-Farm Income Diversification in Rural Ethiopia. Journal of Poverty Alleviation and International Development 6(1):109-130.


Sarah A (2015). Rural Livelihood Diversification in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review, The Journal of Development Studies


Scoones (2000). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: a framework for analysis. IDS Working Paper no. 72,Brighton: Institute for Development Studies.


Sharma R (2010). Diversification in Rural Livelihood Strategies: A Macro-Level Evidence from Jammu and Kashmir. Working Papers 439. 



Sisay B (2013). Review on Rural livelihood diversification among the smallholder farmers in some Africa countries. International Journal of Agricultural Economics Extension and Rural Development 1(1):010-016.


Tamerat T (2016). Livelihood Resources and Determinants in Tigray Region of Ethiopia. International Journal of Lean Thinking 7(2):57- 66


Tenaw Z (2016). Constraints of Pastoral and Agro-pastoral Livelihood Diversification in Eastern Ethiopia: The Case of Mieso District, Oromia Regional State. International Journal of Sciences Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) 26(3): 267-274.


Tesfaw W (2015). Ma Thesis on Challenges and Opportunities of Livelihood Diversification: The Case of Pastoral Communities in Yabelo Woreda, Borana Zone, Ethiopia. Indira Gandhi National Open University School of Continuing Education. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


Tilahun A, Teklu B, Hoag D (2017). Challenges and contributions of crop production in agro-pastoral systems of Borana Plateau, Ethiopia. Pastoralism: Research Policy and Practice 7(2):2-8. 


Tolossa D (2005). Rural Livelihoods, Poverty and Food Insecurity in Ethiopia: A Case Study at Erenssa and Garbi Communities in Oromai Zone, Ahmara National Regional State. Doctorial Thesis: Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim: NTNUtrykk.


Weldegebriel Z, Prowse M (2013). Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification? Development Policy Review 31(Suppl. s2), 035-056. 


Wondimagegnhua B, Nischalkeb S, Alebachewa M, Beuchelt T (2016). Challenges and Prospects of Farm and Non-farm Livelihood Strategies of Smallholder Farmers in Yayu Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. A Qualitative Analysis. Paper presented at Conference on International Research on Food Security, organized by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU Vienna), Austria.


Yishak G, Gezahegn A, Tesfaye L, Dawit A (2014). Rural household livelihood strategies: Options and determinants in the case of Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Social Sciences 3(3):92-104.


Yizengaw S, Okoyo E, Fekadu B (2015). Determinants of livelihood diversification strategies: The case of smallholder rural farm households in Debre Elias Woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research 10(19):1998-2013 


Yona Y, Mathewos T (2017). Assessing challenges of non-farm livelihood diversification in Boricha Woreda, Sidama zone. Development. Agricultural Economic. 9(4)87-96.