Journal of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Electrical Electron. Eng. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2367
  • DOI: 10.5897/JEEER
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 59

Full Length Research Paper

A new scheme of image watermarking based on fuzzy clustering theory

Sameh Oueslati1, 2*, Adnane Cherif1 and Bassel Solaiman2
1Department of Physics, Laboratory of Signal Processing, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis, El Manar 1060, Tunis. 2Department: Image and Information Processing, Higher National School of Telecommunication of Bretagne, Technopole of Brest Iroise, 29285 Brest – France.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 31 July 2010
  •  Published: 30 November 2010


Digital watermarking technology has the advantages of easy implementation and capability of providing wide security services such as copyright protection, authentication and secret communication. In this paper, a novel image watermarking approach based on embedding watermarks in different domains, without any distortion of the watermarked image is used. In the spatial domain, the processing method is based on study of segmentation by fuzzy c-means clustering method (FCM) that outputs the zones of watermark embedding and respectively the associated appropriate embedding gain factors. However, in the DCT, we embedded the watermark into the coefficients in mid-band frequency of the selected blocks with different embedding strength. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has good imperceptibility and high robustness to common image processing operators.


Key words: Image watermarking, insertion force, Image segmentation, fuzzy C-mean (FCM), statistical features