The study was conducted in Arsi Zone Sude Woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia aims to assess beekeeping production systems and constraints. Totally, 90 households were selected for the study. Semi structured questionnaire was prepared to collect primary data. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the results were organized by tables and graphs. Based on the survey result, about 97% of the respondents indicated there are different forage types of honey bees’ floras like shrubs, bushes, cultivated crops herbs, weeds and some woody plants like Wanza, Koshem, Sesbania, Acacia and Tree Lucerne. The majority (72%) of the respondents obtained beekeeping by catching swarms. Honey was harvested twice a year from May to June and September to November. The survey result also indicated that beekeeping has a huge number of constraints that hinder honey bee production and profitability. The major constraints are shortage of bee forage, pests and predators, death of colony, swarming; bad weather and marketing. Lack of bee forage associate with deforestation is the main problem, and it ranks first from all the constraints. The major pests and predators are ants, rats, beetles wax moth, bee lice, spiders, birds, lizards, snakes, etc. The respondents indicated that, they have interest to improve beekeeping practices in the area. So the government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) should support by training them on how to manage honey bee flora, and providing modern honey bee equipment to enhance the honey productivity is also very important to enhance the products of beekeeping in the study area.
Key words: Beekeeping practice, Ethiopia.