Crude ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots of Citrulus colocynthis Schrad were examined for their antibacterial potentialities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots were found to be active against Gram positive bacilli, viz., Bacilus pumilus and Staphylococcus aureus, while fruit and root extracts in double strength gave positive results against Gram positive bacillus (Bacillus subtilis). The Gram negative bacilli viz., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed no response, and in order for it to affect the alcoholics extract of rat liver, 50 rats were randomly divided into five groups (4 experimental and 1 controls). In the experimental groups a single daily dose of alcoholic extract of C. colocynthis (50, 100, 200, 400 g/kg) was administered intraperitonally. Normal saline was administered in control group. After two weeks, the rats were killed and the livers were removed and fixed with formalin (10%). Specimens were then processed and stained with H&E and Reticuline. The results indicated that there is a morphological change in liver cells including karyrrhexis, chromatolysis, and granulation of the cytoplasm. Additionally, collagen and reticular fibers were evident in liver parenchyma in high doses. Citrullus colocynthi can have toxic effects on liver cells which may induce hepatocyte necrosis and liver fibrosis. These effects were dose dependent. Further studies are necessary to clarify the issue.
Key words: Citrullus Colocynthis, Bacilus pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, liver, necrosis, zabol.
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