### Journal ofLanguages and Culture

• Abbreviation: J. Lang. Cult.
• Language: English
• ISSN: 2141-6540
• DOI: 10.5897/JLC
• Start Year: 2010
• Published Articles: 120

Essay

## ‘You are magnifique, Maeg’s descendants!’ (769th-784th characters)

##### Rosa Kim
• Rosa Kim
• L'Ambassade de la République de Corée en Côte d'Ivoire, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
##### Sohwa Therese Kim
• Sohwa Therese Kim
• Department of French Language and Literature, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.
##### Jiah Anna Kim
• Jiah Anna Kim
• Départment d'Expertise Economique, Université de Paris-Est Creteil, Paris, France.
##### Kunjoo Daegon Andrea Kim
• Kunjoo Daegon Andrea Kim
• FarmHannong, LG Chemicals, Seoul, South Korea.
##### Jieun Agatha Kim
• Jieun Agatha Kim
• Department of Economics, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
##### Hyeonhi Regina Park
• Hyeonhi Regina Park
• Department of Elderly Care and Welfare, Joongbu University, Kumsan, South Korea.
##### Alain Hamon
• Alain Hamon
• L'Ecole Internationale Jean-Mermoz, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.
##### Francine Tenaillon
• Francine Tenaillon
• Académie de Lille, Lille, France.
##### Anne-Marie Forget
• Anne-Marie Forget
• 20 Avenue du Chateau, 92340 Bourg la Reine, France.
##### Francois Forget
• Francois Forget
• 20 Avenue du Chateau, 92340 Bourg la Reine, France.
##### Sangdeog Augustin Kim
• Sangdeog Augustin Kim
• Department of Companion Animal and Animal Resources Science, Joongbu University, Kumsan, South Korea.

•  Accepted: 16 April 2017
•  Published: 31 July 2017

ABSTRACT

The researchers studied the Tcheonzamun (The Thousand Character Essay) poem of 769 to 784th characters. The poem is composed of dialogues between an aged man and a young man, or between a husband and wife of a family. The main theme of the poem is ‘recovering from defeat’. The aged man praises the young man, ‘You are magnifique, Maeg’s descendants!’. In another interpretation, there is a matrimonial expression, and there is an opinion that the ancient Chinese people had only little theological knowledge. Here, the author of Tcheonzamun expressed his deep belief in the Lord.

Key words: Dialogue, Tcheonzamun (The Thousand Character Essay), aged man and young man, husband and wife.

INTRODUCTION

It was thought that Tcheonzamun (The Thousand Character Essay) was written by Chinese people. This belief was so strong that not only Chinese people but also Koreans believed it is a Chinese traditional masterpiece.

However, the present researchers have recently found that the author of Tcheonzamun had utilized Korean languages in his great work (Park et al., 2017).  Originally, Korean language and Chinese language are truly different (Dallet, 1874), because Chinese language depend on the meaning of each Chinese character, while Korean language depend on the pronunciation of each letter. Therefore, the Koreans must use several letters together in order to express its meaning except some sounds with only one word, while the Chinese can utilize only one word in order to show its meaning.

It is known that each Tcheonzamun poem is constructed with 16 letters (Park et al., 2017). And the meaning of Tcheonzamun through Chinese character was connected to the meaning through Korean pronunciation. It is not possible to connect the two different language systems with similar meanings! But the Tcheonzamun author(s) had fulfilled the work. Until now those themes the researcher found are as follows;

(1) Even though the territory was taken by the enemy, the most important things remained. That is to broaden the mind (Park et al., 2017 a, b c, d).
(2) The defeat from the battle and encouragement for the defeated soldiers (Park and Kim, 2017)
(3) You, Maeg people will have victory in future even though the present condition is not favorable (Park et al., 2017) (4) to our enemy Yeon (Park et al., 2008).

Maeg is the name of a country, and China and Japan called it Koguryo (Encyclopaedia Britannica in Korea, 1997). It is thought that Tcheonzamun (The Thousand Character Essay) was written by Maeg people (Kim and Park, 2016). The researchers think that there are two methods of interpreting Tcheonzamun: translation through Chinese characters and modern Korean pronunciation of the Chinese characters. The researchers tried using these two methods. This time there is an another possibility of changing the persons of dialogue from an aged man and young man to the wife and husband in a family.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

HanSeogBong Tcheonzamun (Kim, 2002) was utilized in the Tcheonzamun poem of 769 784th characters. A Chinese dictionary, Kangxizidian (Zang et al., 1716) was utilized. Personal communication with Professor Nicolas Tenaillon, (2017) was also used in a discussion of Chinese theology. Some internet data were used (The Academy of Korean Studies, 29 January 2017). The researchers translated the Tcheonzamun poem both through the Chinese character method and through the Korean pronunciation method. And the researchers utilized the data of Sturman N (1 January 2015) in order to compare the meanings of this Tcheonzamun poem.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The next is the letter from Africa, Cote d’Ivoire. The letter was written by Rosa on 4 October 2016. Rosa is the third daughter of our family.

My loving Papa and Mamma!

When people want to get married, they give their parents the printed and beautiful invitation card before the marriage. They will bow down in front of their parents in Korea. But Alain and Rosa write the card by their hands. Alain’s parents printed the card in France and sent it  to  our friends and Alain’s relatives. Alain and Rosa wanted to send the card, and we searched for a beautiful card in Cote d’Ivoire. We have gone to all of bookstores, but there is no beautiful card to buy.

Therefore, we ourselves wrote the card like this. As you know Papa and Mamma, I used to write the letter and to draw the picture in Catholic Church when I was in Korea. And I like drawing pictures until now. My mom and papa, please receive this card with a pleasant mind! It is now being prepared well for our marriage ceremony (It is because of the parents of Alain and Papa and Mamma!). And I am going to adapt well here in Cote d’Ivoire. When I saw that Mamma is preparing my marriage ceremony, for example, going and coming here and there to buy flower-like beautiful shoes and Korean traditional costume, I felt that I am the beloved third daughter of my family until now. Even though I cannot promise to you that I will not have any trouble with him…, my loving Papa and Mamma, I will get along with Alain with the least trouble. If I endure only two months! And then we will meet together in December!! I love Papa and Mamma!  4 October 2016 Rosa The researchers translated the poem through Chinese character and through Korean pronunciation as follows;

Park and Kim (2017b, 2012) translated Tcheonzamun sentences through Chinese characters; 685-688 노겸근칙(NoGyeomGeunTchig) 勞謙謹勅
If you want to make a sentence which can be easily known by his own country man (勞) while it is very hard for other people to know its meaning (謙), you can mix(謹) some unknown marks(勅) to express the words secretly.

And they interpreted the next sentences through Korean pronunciation as follows;

685-688 노겸근칙 (NoGyeomGeunTchig) 勞謙謹勅 오금을 쳐(OGeumEul Tcheo, changed into the modern Korean) – Beat the back part of knee of the enemy!

This poem is composed of 769-784th letters in Tcheonzamun. This is a translation of the Tcheonzamun poem through Chinese character.

Korean alphabets (Korean pronunciation); Chinese characters (Chinese pronunciation)

769-772 진근위예(Zin Keun Wi Ye) 陳(/)根(-)委(V)(醫-

The Tcheonzamun author described as root accumulates little by little when somebody owns a solitary or independent attitude of thinking without expressing to other person(s) his or her intention. The author describes a person who does things by himself as layers of root block. Is such a person not frank? Does the author think that having such a solitary thinking is not formidable?

773-776 낙엽표요(Nag Yeop Pyo Yo) 落()葉()飄(-)(謠-言+風)(/)(luo ye piao yao)
If you want to make leaves(葉) to fall from a tree(落), the still and unmoving porcelain-like wind(謠-言+風) must be changed into the moving and apparently showing wind.

777-780 유곤독운(Yu Kon Dog Un) 遊(/)鯤(-)獨(/)運()(you kun du yun,)
Anyway you must move your body (運) by yourself (獨), and then only with this small practice you can grow up to an enormously big fish(鯤) who swims gently through the water in the great sea(遊). It means that you cannot develop yourself without trial. And even if the trial is trivial, it is tremendously important!

In another words, even though his or her state is very good now he or she should continue to endeavor to develop it, because only with this method he or she can remain bright in her or his talent.

781-784 능마강소 (Neung Ma Kang So) 凌(/)摩(/)絳()(雨+肖)(-)(ling mo jiang xiao)
If we want to see the whole heaven (雨+肖) filled with the red brightness and the splendid light (絳), I, myself, must be also connected(摩) to the upward moving power(凌).

At first, the small leaves (on the second line) fell with the wind, and then the big fish (on the third line) swam in the water, at last Lord make the Heaven to be filled with brightness and light(on the fourth line). ‘We must do well if we want the Great Heaven to be complete’ “Oh Lord of both of us, Augustin and Hyeonhi, we are only able to do something small and meaningless. ‘Even though our role is really tiny and trivial, it is essentially necessary for our Lord to make the Heaven completely!’’

Professor Nicolas Tenaillon  (personal  communication) through his research on philosophy said the ancient Chinese people had only little theological knowledge, in other words, they had not shown any faith in God. However, here, the author of Tcheonzamun expressed his deep believe for the Lord.

Several days ago (26 December 2016), the researchers arrived at Incheon Airport in Republic of Korea on their way to France for the marriage ceremony of Alain and Rosa.

The following is an interpretation through Korean pronunciation of the same poem.

Korean alphabets (Korean pronunciation); Chinese characters changed into the modern Korean (and its pronunciation)

769-772 진근위예(Zin Keun Wi Ye) 陳(/)根(-)委(V)(醫-酉+羽)() 징그러워(Zing Keu Reo Weo)! I was defeated in the combat, and now I am really depressed!

‘O Dong Zo Zo(765-768 오동조조 梧桐早凋)’ is written in the previous poem (753rd to 768th letters) just before the present poem. The author of the Tcheonzamun advised the young man or his son, “Be stronger than your enemy! Have courage against the enemy!” Then, the young man responded to the honorable man, “The man of honor, I became terribly fearful in front of my enemy, because my enemy was more powerful and better than I am in the war.”

And there is a line of ‘Bi Pa Man Tchi’ (761 to 764 비파만취 枇杷晩翠) in front of ‘O Dong Zo Zo’ in the previous Tcheonzamun poem. Several members of the researchers were invited by the parents of Alain Hamon, the new son in-law of Hyeonhi and Augustin, the day before yesterday (2 January, 2017). The origin of Mrs. Hanna Hamon, the mother of Alain, is Poland. Hanna said to the researchers at her home, “In Poland we take a hand-sized thin and round cookie in our own hands, and we ask for a blessing to the family member in the new year!”  With the proposal of Hanna, the bridegroom Rosa and Alain Seobang(It is the respecting name for the son in-law in Korea), the last daughter Sohwa Therese of family Kim, the first daughter Jieun Agatha of family Kim, Augustin’s wife Hyeonhi and Augustin, all of them blessed each other. (Alain’s father, Pierre Hamon, was not there, because Pierre’s father was in a hospital and went to his father’s house.) “It is really nice that you are well enough to come to Rosa’s marriage ceremony!” Sohwa, Jieun and Rosa said to me, “I hope that you will be healthy, it’s very nice that you are in good condition now Papa!” Augustin himself felt very good that he is able to attend his home affairs, “I am very happy to be with my family when they are happy even if they are  also  in  a  sad condition, because now I am together with them. If I died from the cancer, I could not do so!” Augustin was newly acquainted with the fact that all of his family also felt for him on the very night of the day before yesterday (2 January 2017).

One of the researchers, Augustin, had analyzed in France cadmium and copper for 1 year from 1998 (Bermond et al., 2014), and he had analyzed also in Korea zinc, nickel, cadmium and copper for 4 years from 2007. Nickel and cadmium are carcinogen materials (Windholz et al., 1983). Augustin was truly glad to have written so many articles from those experiments. But it was noticed that Augustin became a colon-cancer patient (a serious, third level of the cancer) in May 2011. And then he was operated in Seoul Saint Mary Hospital. If he had not done the cancer operation, he would have died at that time. In Korea there is a saying that, “He will die if he stools blood”. This is a condition or symptom of the colon cancer patient. It was truly fortunate that Augustin recovered from the disease. It was the grace of the Lord for both Augustin and Hyeonhi.

773-776 낙엽표요(Nag Yeop Pyo Yo) 落()葉()飄(-)(謠-言+風)(/) 나 아프요(Na A Peu Yo)! I was seriously injured in the battle, and now I am a patient!

Certainly, Maeg people might be proud of their weapon, the lute-shaped bronze dagger. While China’s bronze contained copper, stain and plumb in Sang (or it is called Eun) dynasty period, the bronze dagger of Maeg country with the 3 metals specially contained zinc (The Academy of Korean Studies, 2017).

It might be the reason that Maeg people had prepared their bronze near the temperature of 500°C (The Academy of Korean Studies, 2017), while the Chinese had done their ceramics with the temperature of around 1,000°C (Gernet, 2015). Zinc melts down at temperature of around 500°C (Windholz et al., 1983).

Therefore, the Chinese bronze might not contain zinc because of the temperature of 1,000℃, as shown in the Chinese ceramics (Gernet, 2015). It is said that zinc contains cadmium in its ores (Windholz et al., 1983). Therefore, it is possible that lute-shaped Korean bronze dagger has a considerable cadmium in itself. Is it because cadmium and copper are mixed in the dagger? The Korean bronze dagger was a very good weapon when Maeg people fought against their enemies. But the dagger might also be terrible and toxic to Maeg people themselves, because Maeg people took in their hands the splendid weapon, the Korean bronze dagger. The good but toxic bronze dagger might make Maeg soldiers become cancer patients, as Augustin, one of the researchers, became a cancer patient during his cadmium experiments.

The young but sick soldier  said  to  the  author  of Tcheonzamun, “I am sick now! I am not able to do anything for myself. Do not say, please, any noble thing to me, now I am sick!”

777-780 유곤독운(Yu Kon Dog Un) 遊(/)鯤(-)獨(/)運() 우글거리는(U Keul Keori Neun). Your country will be refreshed again with a lot of people.

Then, the aged man, the author of Tcheonzamun, said again to the young man, “Don’t be afraid of anything! You will be flourished with your sons and daughters, have a good courage please!”
The author of Tcheonzamun continued to tell the forceless soldier with both sickness and defeat from the struggle against his enemy.

781-784 능마강소(Neung Ma Kang So) 凌(/)摩(/)絳()(雨+肖)(-) 내 맥 암수(Nae Maeg Am Soo)! Men and women of

Maeg country, my descendants! You are magnifique, Maeg’s descendants!

The Tcheonzamun author said to the young man and young woman of Maeg country, “It is very important for you to give birth to many children and to grow them up. You can prepare well your future with these two things!”

“Augustin and Hyeonhi, we, truly thank you our Lord! And our trustworthy son Kunjoo DaegonAndrea, thank you for keeping our home safely during the week-end! You could not come here to France with us because of your busy work in the office. Our pretty second daughter Jiah Anna, thank you for buying the airplane tickets for your mom, Sohwa and me! You had to prepare your examination for being the public officer, so you were not able to come here to France with us.”

Our third daughter Rosa and Alain Hamon had a beautiful marriage both in Levallois-Perret (just near to Paris) city hall and in a Catholic Church in Paris. So we called Alain, our French son-in law as Alain Seobang (Seobang indicates the son-in law with respectful meaning).

“Our Lord of Augustin and Hyeonhi, we thank you Amen! I, Augustin, am really glad because, my Lord, you gave me good health to come to visit France!”
Now it is cold outdoors. When we come home from the sightseeing of Paris, indoor it is really comfortable and warm. Thank the new couple, Rosa the third child of our family and Alain Hamon the new bridegroom. Alain and Rosa, they have lived together with us in the hotel. They have prepared the house for us.

“Thank you very much, Mrs. Francine Tenaillon and Mr. Nicolas Tenaillon for your warm invitation! With your  five children -Juliette, Rosalie, Valentin, Ferdinand, Margueritte-, you invited us to your house for the really delicious dinner!” It was the next day of the marriage, 29th December 2016. And we were very glad, because we had a chance of saluting Papa of Nicolas and to Mom of Francine.

“Truly we thank you, Mr. François Forget and Mrs. Anne-Marie Forget! You invited us for the splendid dinner in your house with your grandson Gael! François, you have guided us to the Catholic Church of ‘L’Eglise de François d’Assise’ and to the park of ‘Parc de Sceaux’. Anne-Marie and François, it was really splendid for my family to visit the two places, because we went there so many times when we were here in France from 1998-1999.” It was today 4 January 2017.
“My darling Hyeonhi, you prepared breakfast for me when the others were sleeping this morning and I tapped the manuscript in the computer. I love you Hyeonhi, and thank you very much!" “We deeply thank our Lord for both of us!” The couple of Hyeonhi Regina Park and Sangdeog Augustin Kim at Levallois-Perret just near Paris at the night of 4 January 2017.

In the morning of 20 January 2017, Augustin, asked his wife Hyeonhi “It seemed that there are somewhat matrimonial expressions on this Tcheonzamun poem. What shall I do?” Then, Hyeonhi said to Augustin “Your point of view, it is not possible. And I do not give any attention to the matter! This time, it is you that translate the poem.” Therefore, Augustin had to start without Hyeonhi’s help to interpret the poem.

769-772 진근위예(Zin Keun Wi Yee) 陳(/)根(-)委(V) (醫-酉+羽)() 징그러워(Zing Keu Reo Weo)! That’s gross!
773-776 낙엽표요(Nag Yeop Pyo Yo) 落()葉()飄(-)(謠-言+風)(/) 나 아프요(Na A Peu Yo)! I am so busy that I do not have time to respond to your futile joke!
777-780 유곤독운(Yu Kon Dog Un) 遊(/)鯤(-)獨(/)運() 우글거리는(U Keul Keori Neun), I have a great joy in my family with many children whom my wife engendered to me!
781-784 능마강소(Neung Ma Kang So) 凌(/)摩(/)絳(`)(雨+肖)(-) 내 맥 암수(Nae Maeg Am Soo)! My dear sons and daughters, the people of Maeg country! With my loving wife I am very proud of you!

Here, the first line (769 to 772) and the second line (773 to 776) are spoken by a husband, and the third line (777 to 780) and the fourth line (781 to 784) are by his wife. Possibly the indiscreet husband might say this to his wife, “Let’s have our new baby!” His wife responded to his husband with a sharp complain, “To have a new baby? No! I am already tired with lots of household affairs and with taking care of our present children. So I do not have even a little time for me. You are stupid!” But the husband tries to insist again his proposal, “I hope we have more children, our sons and daughters, enough to be seen here and there in our house (U Keul Keori Neun)! And the husband says to his wife in somewhat patriotic mood, “It is good for us as Maeg people to have our new baby (Nae Maeg Am Soo)!”

What will be the next dialogue between the wife and her husband? And what is the status of woman before her husband in the ancient Korean society at the era of 2500 years ago? Was she subordinate to her husband or independent of him? Let’s wait for the interpretation of the succeeding poem of Tcheonzamun (785-800th characters).

In translating this Tcheonzamun poem, Augustin, one of the present researchers, felt much sorry for her wife Hyeonhi. Augustin, himself, seemed the very husband in this poem. Next is the feeling of Augustin after the interpretation of the Tcheonzamun poem (769 to 784th characters) through Korean pronunciation.

Hyeonhi and Augustin, both researchers have lived for four and half years at Nagoya in Japan where Augustin studied as a foreign student. They began to know that there was only one family having two children. In another words, the couple had the most children among the approximately 40 Korean students. When the two of the researchers arrived there, they had already Jieun, their first baby (daughter). And there the two researchers had got two another babies, Kunjoo (son) and Jiah (daughter), during their stay there (Their real residence was at Togo-cho near Nagoya).

“My darling Hyeonhi, you were great at that time as now it is! You had to not only make three children to grow up but also help me to finish my studying in the graduate school of Nagoya University. Thank you! I love you!” And Rosa, the fourth baby in their family, was born in an economically unsteady period when Augustin was a temporary instructor in Joongbu University. So the earning was not sufficient for the living of 6-membered family. Sohwa, the fifth in the family, was born just before going to abroad again. Augustin was dispatched for one year by Korean government into France. All of Augustin’s family, seven persons, went there together. “My father Ilsoo Joseph, certainly you were very sad at that time when we went to France! However, my father, I am really thanking you now, because you have permitted me to go abroad with my family!”

CONCLUSION

This time, the researchers investigated the meaning of the Tcheonzamun poem (from 769th to 784th letters), and they considered that the Tcheonzamun author had wanted to express his thought as follows;

1. ‘Even though our role is really tiny and  trivial,  it  is essentially necessary for our Lord to make the Heaven completely!’
2. “My dear sons and daughters, the people of Maeg country! With my loving wife I am very proud of you!”
3. If this Tcheonzamun poem is constructed of a conversation by a husband and a wife, here, the first line (769 to 772), and the second line (773 to 776) are spoken by a husband, the third line (777 to 780), and the fourth line (781 to 784) are by his wife.

CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.

REFERENCES

 Bermond A, Baize D, Mench M, Kim SA (2014). Analysis of soil cadmium and copper contents on a Domérien soil series of Burgundy in France. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 13(12):1343-1350. Crossref Dallet CH (1874). Histoire de l'Eglise de Corée (History of Korean Catholic Church). Victor Palme. Paris. France. pp. 11-99. Encyclopaedia Britannica in Korea (1997). Encyclopaedia Britannica. 7:317. Gernet J (2015). Le Monde chinois. 1. De l'age de bronze au Moyen age. Armand Colin. Paris. pp. 20-73. Kim JJ (2002). HanSeogBong Tcheonzamun. Eunkwang Publishing company. Seoul. pp. 1-52. Kim SA, Park HR (27 November 2012). Keu Ddeolbeun Kami Hongsiga Doini (The astringent persimmon becomes soft and sweet with the time progressed). Kim SA, Park HR (27 February 2013). If you want to make your mind happy, you must make the Lord's mind pleasant – It is the grace of our father YeongHag Park!(Nae Maeumeul Kibbeuge Mandeullyeogeodeun Haneunim Maeumeul Kibbeusige Haedeuryeora – Uri YeongHag Abuzi Deogbunieorau!). Kim SA, Park HR, Kim JA, Kim KDA, Kim JA, Kim R, Kim ST (4 May 2013). Jiah Annaga Kotchyeosseun Seomun (The introduction which was corrected by Jiah Anna). Kim SA, Park HR (21 September 2016). Uri IlSoo Josheph Abuzi Saenggag 18(Uri Minzogeui Gussen Iyagi - Tcheonzamun [Remember of my father Ilsoo Joseph 18 (Tcheonzamun is a story of our tolerant ancestors)]. Park HR, Kim SA (31 May 2012). Atchim Ilzigbuteo Ileona Anzayaziyo (You must get up early in the morning). Park HR, Kim SA (26 May 2016). Naega Nareul Baborago Saengkaghamyeon (Tcheonzamuneun Uri Keulibnida. Zungkug Keuli Anigoyo). [If I think that I were fool (Tcheonzamun-the book of 'The Thousand Character Essay'- is not Chinese writing but our Korean writing.)]. Park HR, Kim SA (27 July 2016). Zunim Zusin Tcheonzamun Haeseogbeob (Haneunim Maeume Deuneun Saramieoya Hamnida Amen!) [Our Lord gave us the translation method for Tcheonzamun. (The person must be loved by God Amen!)]. Park HR, Kim JA, Kim KD, Kim JA, Kim ST, Hamon A, Kim R, Kim SA, (2017a). Let's make from now on the land of our mind broader! with a hidden meaning of 'We had better stop here completely!'; from "Translation of a Tcheonzamun(The Thousand Character Essay; written of 1000 letters in Chinese character) poem(657th - 672nd letters)". J. Lang. Cult. 8(2):10-13. Crossref Park HR, Kim SA (2017b). Don't be an idiot! Fight! with the apparent title of 'you must write it on your words as historical records by your own hand' - Translation of the poem on Tcheonzamun(the book of 'The Thousand Character Essay') from 673rd to 688th both by using Chinese characters and through Korean pronunciation. J. Lang. Cult. 8(3):24-27. Crossref Park HR, Kim JA, Kim KD, Kim JA, Kim ST, Hamon A, Kim R, Kim SA (2017c). The son and the daughter of Maeg country, I am very proud of you!' with a title of 'I will do my best for my children as if I stood in front of God!' - Translation of the poem on Tcheonzamun (the book of 'The Thousand Character Essay') from 689th to 704th characters. J. Lang. Cult. 8(3):28-31. Crossref Park HR, Kim JA, Kim KD, Kim JA, Kim ST, Hamon A, Kim R, Kim SA, (2017d).The Tcheonzamun (the thousand character essay). J. Lang. Cult. 8(2):14-17. Crossref Park BH, Lee SC, Choi IS, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Park MS, Kim SA (2008). Measuring of cadmium content in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). J. Kor. Grassl. Forage Sci. 28(3):185-192. Crossref Sturman N (1 January 2015). The Thousand Character Essay (in Mandarin Qian Zi Wen). Source: www. oocities. org/npsturman/tce.html. (Edited by Cambridge Chinese Classics, www. camcc. org). UK (United Kingdom). Tenaillon N (personal communication). The Academy of Korean Studies (29 January 2017). Windholz M, Budavari S, Blumetti RF, Otterbein ES (1983). The Merck Index (Tenth edition). Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway. NJ. USA. P 223. Zang SN, Zin BE, Hyeog H, Ai BA, Na CA, Wang IZ (1716). Kangxizidian. Edited by Zhonghua Book Company in 2013. Beijing. pp. 1200-1201.

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