The need for an alternative means of managing renal toxicity has become necessary instead of kidney transplant. This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum (AEOG) on acetaminophen (ACE) induced renal toxicity. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were assigned into five groups (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) with five rats in each group. Group 1 served as the normal control and received normal saline as placebo. Group 2 served as the negative control and received 500 mg/kg of ACE orally for 21 days. Groups 3, 4 and 5 served as the treatment groups and received 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg AEOG in addition to 500 mg/kg ACE orally for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed on the 22nd day. Blood was collected for the biochemical analysis (serum creatinine, urea and electrolytes). The kidney was harvested, rinsed in 1% KCl and preserved in 10% formaldehyde solution for the histological examination. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponin, alkaloids, phenols, phlobatamin, anthraquinone, terpernoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and absence of cardenolides and chalcones. Biochemical analysis showed significant increase in creatinine and urea levels in the negative control groups when compared with the normal control while there was no significant decrease in both creatinine and urea in the treatment groups when compared with the negative control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, and HCO3-). The histological examination showed mild and moderate healing of the renal tissues in the treatment groups when compared with the negative control group which showed severely damaged renal tissues. Based on the aforementioned observations, it was concluded that AEOG possessed ameliorative effect in ACE induced renal toxicity.
Key words: Renal toxicity, acetaminophen, Occimum gratissimium, rats, electrolytes.
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