Sambucus ebulus is known as dwarf elder or elderberry. S. ebulus extracts are an important area in drug development with numerous pharmacological functions in the Middle East. However, their pharmacological functions have not been clearly studied. For a long time, S. ebulus has been prescribed in traditional medicines for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, such as hemorrhoid, bites and sore-throat. In addition, S. ebulus has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidative activities. Ebulitin, ebulin 1, flavonoid, athocyanin and other components have been isolated from S. ebulus and identified as active ingredients of biological and pharmacological activities. Due to the easy collection of the plant and remarkable biological activities, this plant has become both food and medicine in the coastal area of Iran. This review presents comprehensive analyzed information on the botanical, chemical, toxico-pharmacological and clinical aspects of S. ebulus.
Key words: Sambucus ebulus, Adoxaceae, RIPs, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, anti-cancer, anti-oxidative.
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