Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3728

Full Length Research Paper

In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the root extract of Aspilia mossambicensis (Oliv) Wild (Asteraceae)

Daniel Zacharia Matata
  • Daniel Zacharia Matata
  • Department of Natural Products Development and Formulations, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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Olipa David Ngassapa
  • Olipa David Ngassapa
  • Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65013, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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Mainen Julius Moshi
  • Mainen Julius Moshi
  • Department of Biological and Preclinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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Francis Machumi
  • Francis Machumi
  • Department of Natural Products Development and Formulations, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P. O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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Kenneth Oosthuizen
  • Kenneth Oosthuizen
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
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Bresler Swanepoel
  • Bresler Swanepoel
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
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Luanne Venables
  • Luanne Venables
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
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Trevor Koekemoer
  • Trevor Koekemoer
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
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Matthias Heydenreich
  • Matthias Heydenreich
  • Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 25, E/0.06-0.08, Karl-Liebknecht-Str.24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.
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Paul Erasto Kazyoba
  • Paul Erasto Kazyoba
  • Department of Research Coordination and Promotion, National Institute for Medical Research, P. O. Box 9653 Dar es Salaam Tanzania.
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Maryna van de Venter
  • Maryna van de Venter
  • Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
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  •  Received: 04 June 2020
  •  Accepted: 02 November 2020
  •  Published: 30 November 2020

Abstract

Aspiliamossambicensis(Oliv) Wild is used by Traditional Health Practitioners in northeastern Tanzania, for treatment of cancers. In order to evaluate these claims root powder of the plant was extracted with dichloromethane: methanol (1:1), followed by vacuum liquid chromatography fractionation to obtain dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions which were screened for brine shrimp toxicity and antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP assays. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited higher toxicity on brine shrimp larvae (LC50 = 12.87 µg/ml) than cyclophosphamide (LC50 = 16.12 µg/ml), and antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 200 µg/ml for DPPH and 53.92 μM ECGC equivalent/g dry weight for FRAP assay. The ethyl acetate fraction was cytotoxic against HeLa cancer cells (IC50 50.77 ± 1.69 µg/ml), causing cell cycle arrest at the M phase, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization and activation of caspase 3 and 8. Four compounds were isolated from this fraction; (-)-Angeloylgrandifloric acid and 16α–hydroxykauran-19-oic acid, which were cytotoxic to the HeLa cervical cancer cells with IC50 = 27.75 and 40.19 μg/ml, respectively, and 16αHydroxy-9(11)-kauren-19-oic acid and grandifloric acid which were non-toxic to the HeLa cells. Further research is recommended to establish the clinical significance of the current findings.

Key words: Aspiliamossambiscensis, cytotoxic activity, brine shrimp toxicity, antioxidant