Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3834

Full Length Research Paper

Antibacterial and antimutagenic activity of extracts aboveground parts of three Solidago species: Solidago virgaurea L., Solidago canadensis L. and Solidago gigantea Ait.

Barbara KoÅ‚odziej1*, RadosÅ‚aw Kowalski2 and Bogdan KÄ™dzia3
1Department of Industrial and Medicinal Plants, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland. 2Department of Analysis and Evaluation of Food Quality, Central Laboratory of Agroecology, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland. 3Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Biology, Poznań, Poland.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 10 October 2011
  •  Published: 16 December 2011


Hexane and ethanolic extracts obtained from aboveground parts of three Solidago species (Solidago virgaurea L., Solidago canadensis L. and Solidago gigantea Ait.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty nine and forty nine volatile compounds were detected, respectively in ethanolic and hexane extracts of S. virgaurea, sixty two and forty six in S. canadensis extracts, respectively and seventy three and forty five compounds in the ethanolic and hexane extracts of S. gigantea. Moreover, evaluation of the content of total secondary metabolites (flavonoides, o-dihydroxyphenols) was made. It was found that both ethanolic and hexane extracts showed an antibacterial activity and actedstrongly to Gram-positive (Staphyllococcus aureusStaphyllococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis) than Gram-negative (Escherichia coliKlebsiella pneumoniaePseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. Hexane extract of S. canadensis acted the strongest of Gram-positivebacteria (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values: 5 to 10 mg/ml), while the otherhexane extracts showed rather weak effect (MIC values: 100 and > 100 mg/ml). In the case of ethanolic extracts relatively strong activity against Gram-positive bacteria were found in S.gigantea and S. canadensis (MIC values: from 10 to 50 mg/ml). In general, alcohol extracts had slightly stronger antibacterial properties compared with lipophilic ones. However, hexaneextracts of the S. virgaureaS. canadensis and S. gigantea herb exhibited antimutagenicactivity (at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml), whereas ethanolic extracts, in the applied range of concentrations, did not show antimutagenic activity.


Key words: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago canadensis, Solidago gigantea, antibacterial activity, antimutagenic activity, chemical composition.


GC-MS, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; MIC, minimal inhibitory concentration; DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid.