Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3672

Full Length Research Paper

Phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root and stem bark of Bridelia ferruginea. Benth. (Euphorbiaceae)

Mela Ilu Luka
  • Mela Ilu Luka
  • Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, P.M.B 2084 Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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Stanley Chukwudozie Onuoha
  • Stanley Chukwudozie Onuoha
  • Department of Biotechnology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
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Vincent Olasoji Oladele
  • Vincent Olasoji Oladele
  • Department of Educational Services, Universal Basic Education, P.M.B 163 Garki, Abuja, Nigeria.
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John Aguiyi
  • John Aguiyi
  • Phytomedicine Research and Development, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 01 June 2019
  •  Accepted: 30 July 2019
  •  Published: 31 January 2020

Abstract

This study aimed at analysing the phytochemical content and antimicrobial activity of Bridelia ferrugine against selected bacteria. Total saponin, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and total anthraquinone contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric equivalents of the standards. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts were determined using Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays against selected bacteria. The root and stem revealed the presence of the phytochemicals tested except the stem that lacked anthraquinones. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the plant extracts against the gram-positive bacteria tested showed that Bacillus cereus was most susceptible to the plant extract having MIC and MBC of 25 and 50 mg/ml, respectively for the stem-bark and root-bark ethanolic extract, while gram-negative bacteria the plant extracts were most active against Proteus mirabilis with MIC and MBC of 50 and 100 mg/ml, respectively. The aqueous extract was most active against Staphylococcus epidermidis with MIC and MBC of 50 and 100 mg/ml for stem-bark and 25 and 50 mg/ml for root-bark extract. Concentration dependent study showed the plant extracts were either bacteriostatic or bactericidal. Only the stem-bark aqueous extract showed no primary effect on the control strains. The study confirmed the presence of some phytochemicals which revealed that the plant is of pharmacological importance going by the ability of these phytochemicals to elicit antibacterial activity.

Key words: Antibacterial, phytochemical screening, Bridelia ferruginea, plant extracts.