Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3758

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of leaf extracts of Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. and Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh. for genotoxicity and the modulation of EMS-induced genotoxicity

Asita Okorie A.
  • Asita Okorie A.
  • Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Maseru 100, Lesotho, Southern Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Sibusisiwe Magama
  • Sibusisiwe Magama
  • Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Maseru 100, Lesotho, Southern Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Lengala Nthabiseng M.
  • Lengala Nthabiseng M.
  • Department of Biology, National University of Lesotho, P. O. Roma 180, Maseru 100, Lesotho, Southern Africa.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 11 February 2021
  •  Accepted: 07 June 2021
  •  Published: 30 June 2021

References

Abad MJ, Bedoya LM, Apaza L, Bermejo P (2012). The Artemisia L. genus: a review of bioactive essential oils. Molecules 17(3):2542-2566.
Crossref

 

Abu-Darwish MS, Efferth T (2018). Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy. Frontiers in Pharmacology 9:56.
Crossref

 

Adamu M, Naidoo V, Eloff JN (2013). Efficacy and toxicity of thirteen plant leaf acetone extracts used in ethnoveterinary medicine in South Africa on egg hatching and larval development of Haemonchus contortus. BMC Veterinary Research 9(1):38.
Crossref

 

Akinboro A, Bakare AA (2007). Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn. Journal of Ethopharmacology 112(3):470-475.
Crossref

 

Akintonwa A, Awodele O, Afolayan G, Coker HA (2009). Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria. Journal of Ethopharmacology 125(3):461-470.
Crossref

 

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2008). Molecular Biology of the Cell, 1601, Garland Science, New York.
Crossref

 

Alcântara DDFÁ, Ribeiro HF, Cardoso PCdS, Araújo TMT, Burbano RR, Guimarães AC, Khayat AS, Oliveira Bahia M (2013). In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of artemether, an antimalarial drug, in a gastric cancer cell line (PG100). Journal of Applied Toxicology 33(2):151-156.
Crossref

 

Al-Oqail MM, Farshori NN, Al-Sheddi ES, Al-Massarani SM, Saquib Q, Siddiqui MA, Al-Khedhairy AA (2021). Oxidative Stress Mediated Cytotoxicity, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induced by Rosa damascena in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2021, Article ID 6695634, 11 pages.
Crossref

 

Ames BN (1986). "Food constituents as a source of mutagens, carcinogens and anticarcinogens," in Genetic Toxicology of the Diet, I. Knudsen, Ed., Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA. pp. 55-62.

 

Aremu AO, Amoo SO, Ndhlala AR, Finnie JF, Van Staden J (2011). Antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, iridoid content and mutagenic evaluation of Leucosidea sericea. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49(5):1122-1128.
Crossref

 

Aremu AO, Moyo M, Amoo SO, Van Staden J (2013). Mutagenic evaluation of 10 long-term stored medicinal plants commonly used in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 87:95-98.
Crossref

 

Arumugama P, Murugan M, Kamalakannan S, Murugan K (2017). Determination of Various Bioactive Potential of Stoechospermum marginatum (C. Agardh) Kutzing In-Vitro. Journal of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Research 5(4):00145-00156.
Crossref

 

Asche C (2005). Antitumour quinones. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 5(5):449-467.
Crossref

 

Asita AO, Moramang S, Rants'o T, Magama S (2017). Modulation of mutagen-induced genotoxicity by vitamic C and medicinal plants in Allium cepa, L. Caryologia 70(2):151-165.
Crossref

 

Atanasov AG, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig E.-M, Linder T, Wawrosch C, Uhrin P, Temml V, Wang L, Schwaiger S, Heiss EH, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Breuss JM, Bochkov V, Mihovilovic MD, Kopp B, Bauer R, Dirsch VM, Stuppner H (2015). Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plantderived natural products: a review. Biotechnology Advances 33(8):1582-1614.
Crossref

 

Balandrin MF, Klocke JA, Wurtele ES, Bollinger WH (1985). Natural plant chemicals: sources of industrial and medicinal materials. Science 228 (4704):1154-1160.
Crossref

 

Basaran AA, Yu T-W, Plewa MJ, Anderson D (1996). "An investigation of some Turkish herbal medicines in Salmonella typhimurium and in the COMET assay in human lymphocytes." Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis 16(2):125-138.
Crossref

 

Belayachi L, Aceves-Luquero C, Merghoub N, de Mattos SF, Amzazi S, Villalonga P, Bakri Y (2017). Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by Ormenis eriolepis a Morrocan endemic plant in various human cancer lell lines. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine 14(2):356-373
Crossref

 

Bhattacharya S (2011). Natural antimutagens: a review. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 5(2):116-26.
Crossref

 

Bidau CJ, Amat AG, Yajia M, Marti DA, Riglos AG, Silvestroni A (2004). Evaluation of the genotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae) using the Allium test. Cytologia 69(2):109-117.
Crossref

 

Bonciu E, Firbas P, Fontanetti CS, Wusheng J, Karaismailo?lu MC, Liu D, Menicucci F, Pesnya DS, Popescu A, Romanovsky AV, Schiff S, ?lusarczyk J, de Souza CP, Srivastava A, Sutan A, Papini A (2018). An evaluation for the standardization of the Allium cepa test as cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assay. Caryologia 71(3):191-209.
Crossref

 

Bourgaud F, Gravot A, Milesi S, Gontier E (2001). Production of plant secondary metabolites: A historical perspective. Plant Science 161(5):839-851.
Crossref

 

Brito MT, Martinez A, Cadavid NFC (1990). Mutagenic activity in regional foods and beverages from the Venezuelan Andean region. Mutation Research 243 (2):115-120.
Crossref

 

Camparoto ML, Teixeira RO, Mantovani MS, Vicentini VEP (2002). Effects of Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. and Bauhinia candicans Benth infusions on onion root-tip and rat bone-marrow cells. Genetics and Molecular Biology 25(1):85-89.
Crossref

 

Cassady JM, Douros JD (1980). Anticancer Agents Based on Natural Product Models. Academic Press, New York.

 

Çelik TA, Aslantürk ?S (2007). Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Lavandula stoechas aqueous extracts. Biologia Bratislava 62(3):292-296.
Crossref

 

Çelik TA, Aslantürk ?S (2010). Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Inula viscosa leaf extracts with Allium Test. BioMed Research International 2010(1):1-9.
Crossref

 

Chen SP, Dong M, Kita K, Shi QW, Cong B, Guo WZ, Sugaya S, Sugita K, Suzuki N (2010). Anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducible activity of labdane and abietane diterpenoids from the pulp of Torreya nucifera in HeLa cells. Molecular Medicine Reports 3(4):673-678.
Crossref

 

de Quadros APO, Mazzeo DEC, Marin-Morales MA, Perazzo FF, Rosa PCP, Maistro EL (2017). Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health: Part A 80(3):161-170.
Crossref

 

de Sá Ferreira ICF, Ferrão Vargas VMF (1999). Mutagenicity of medicinal plant extracts in Salmonella/microsome assay. Phytotherapy Research 13(5):397-400.
Crossref

 

Debisri S, Archana S, Geeta T (1996). Plant extracts as modulators of genotoxic effects. The Botanical Review 62(4):275-300.
Crossref

 

Eid SY, El-Readi MZ, Wink M (2012). Synergism of three-drug combinations of sanguinarine and other plant secondary metabolites with digitonin and doxorubicin in multi-drug resistant cancer cells. Phytomedicine 19(14):1288-1297.
Crossref

 

Elgorashi EE, Taylor JLS, Maes A, van Staden J, De Kimpe N, Verschaeve L (2003). Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects. Toxicology Letters 143(2):195-207.
Crossref

 

Fachinetto JM, Bagatini MD, Silva ACF, Tedesco SB (2007). Efeito anti-proliferativo das infusões de Achyrocline satureioides DC (Asteraceae) sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 17(1):49-54.
Crossref

 

Fachinetto JM, Tedesco SB (2009). Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less.) A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulate (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 11(4):360-367.
Crossref

 

Fennell CW, Lindsey KL, McGAW LJ, Sparg SG, Stafford GI, Elgorashi EE, Grace OM, Van Staden J (2004). Assessing African medicinal plants for ef?cacy and safety: pharmacological screening and toxicology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 94(2-3):205-217.
Crossref

 

Fouche G, Cragg GM, Pillay P, Kolesnikova N, Maharaj VJ, Senabe J (2008). In vitro anticancer screening of South African plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119(3):455-461.
Crossref

 

Gimmler-Luz MC, Cardoso VV, Sardiglia CU, da Silva Widholzer D (1999). Transplacental inhibitory effect of carrot juice on the clastogenicity of cyclophosphamide in mice. Genetics and Molecular Biology 22(1):1-13.
Crossref

 

Grant WF (1978). Chromosome Aberration in plants as monitoring system. Environmental Health Perspectives 27:37-43.
Crossref

 

Harborne AJ (1998). Phytochemical Methods A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Dordrecht: Springer: 1-302.

 

Hartwell JL (1971). Plants used against cancer. A survey. Lloydia 34(4):386-425.

 

Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D (1993). Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342(8878):1007-1011.
Crossref

 

Higashimoto M, Purintrapiban J, Kataoka K, Kinouchi T, Vinitketkumnuen U, Akimoto S, Matsumoto H, Ohnishi Y (1993). Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of extracts of three spices and a medicinal plant in Thailand. Mutation Research 303(3):135-142.
Crossref

 

Houghton PJ, Hylands PJ, Mensah AY, Hensel A, Deters AM (2005). In vitro tests and ethnopharmacological investigations: wound healing as an example. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100(1-2):100-107.
Crossref

 

Hussein RA, El-Anssary AA (2018). Plants Secondary Metabolites: The Key Drivers of the Pharmacological Actions of Medicinal Plants, Herbal Medicine, Philip F. Builders, IntechOpen.

View

 

Jakovljevi? MR, Gruji?i? D, Vukajlovi? JT, Markovi? A, Milutinovi? M, Stankovi? M, Vukovi? N, Vuki? M, Miloševi?-Djordjevi? O (2020). In vitro study of genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Artemisia alba Turra. South African Journal of Botany 132:117-126.
Crossref

 

Karaismailoglu MC (2014). Investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Artemisia annua methanol extract with the Allium test. Ekoloji Dergisi 23:64-74.
Crossref

 

Kassie F, Parzefall W, Musk S, Johnson I, Lamprecht G, Sontag G, Knasmuller S (1996). Genotoxic effects of crude juices from Brassica vegetables and juices and extracts from phytopharmaceutical preparations and spices of cruciferous plants origin in bacterial and mammalian cells. Chemico-Biological Interactions 102(1):1-16.
Crossref

 

Khaidakov M, Bishop ME, Manjanatha MG, Lyn-Cook LE, Desai VG, Chen JJ, Aidoo A (2001). Influence of dietary antioxidants on the mutagenicity of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and bleomycin in female rats. Mutation Research 480-481(1):163-170.
Crossref

 

Kilinc K, Demir S, Turan I, Mentese A, Orem A, Sonmez M, Aliyazicioglu Y (2020). Rosa canina extract has antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on human lung and prostate cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer 72(2):273-282.
Crossref

 

Kim SY, An JM, Lee HG, Du SK, Cheong CU, Seo JT (2011). 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells by preventing microtubule polymerization. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 408(2):287-292.
Crossref

 

Knoll MF, Silva ACF, Tedesco SB, Canto-Dorow TS (2006). Effects of Pterocaulon polystachyum DC. (Asteraceae) on onion (Allium cepa) root-tip cells. Genetics and Molecular Biology 29(3):539-542.
Crossref

 

Kuete V (2014). Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants. 1st ed. In: Kuete V, editor. London: Elsevier Inc.; 2014. pp. 1-742.
Crossref

 

Lee SJ, Yum YN, Kim SC, Kim Y, Lim J, Lee WJ, Koo KH, Kim JH, Kim JE, Lee WS, Sohn S, Park SN, Park JH, Lee J, Kwon SW (2013). Distinguishing between genotoxic and non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens by gene expression profiling and bioinformatic pathway analysis. Scientific Reports 3:2783.
Crossref

 

Leme MD, Marin-Morales MA (2009). Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application. Mutation Research 682(1):71-81.
Crossref

 

Liu NQ, Van der Kooy F, Verpoorte R (2009). Artemisia afra: A potential flagship for African medicinal plants? South African Journal of Botany 75(2):185-195.
Crossref

 

Lubini G, Fachinetto J, Laughinghouse H, Paranhos J, Silva A, Tedesco S (2008). Extracts affecting mitotic division in root-tip meristematic cells. Biologia 63(5):647-651.
Crossref

 

Ma TH, Cabrera GL, Cebulska-Wasilewska A, Chen R, Loarca F, Vandenberg AL, Salamone MF (1994). Tradescantia stamen hair mutation bioassay. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 310(2):211-220.
Crossref

 

Mafole TC, Aremu AO, Mthethwa T, Moyo M (2017). An overview on Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.: A multi-purpose tree with potential as a phytomedicine, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 203: 288-303.
Crossref

 

Magama S, Lieta MI, Asita AO (2013). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of four plant species used in traditional medicine in Lesotho. International Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 2(3):170-178.

 

Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Taylor RM, Ruan Y, Wang JS, Chavin KD (2003). Effect of St. John's Wort on Drug Metabolism by Induction of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Enzyme. Journal of the American Medical Association 290(11):1500-1504.
Crossref

 

Masuda Y, Asada K, Satoh R, Kitajima TK (2015). Capillin, a major constituent of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. flower essential oil, induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Phytomedicine 22(5): 545-552.
Crossref

 

Mbaveng AT, Kuete V, Efferth T (2017). Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets. Frontiers in Pharmacology 8:343.
Crossref

 

McCann J, Choi E, Yamasaki E, Ames BN (1975). Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test: Assay of 300 chemicals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 72(12):5135-5139.
Crossref

 

McGaw LJ, Elgorashi EE, Eloff JN (2014). 8 - Cytotoxicity of African Medicinal Plants Against Normal Animal and Human Cells, Editor(s): Victor Kuete, Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal Plants, Elsevier, 2014, pp. 181-233.
Crossref

 

Mensah MLK, Komlaga G, Forkuo AD, Firempong C, Anning AK, Dickson RA (2019). Toxicity and Safety Implications of Herbal Medicines Used in Africa. Herbal Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.72437.
Crossref

 

Mersch-Sundermann V, Bahorun T, Stahl T, Neergheen VS, Soobrattee MA, Wohlfarth R, Sobel R, Brunn HE, Schmeiser T, Lamy E, Aruoma OI (2006). Assessment of the DNA damaging potency and chemopreventive effects towards BaP-induced genotoxicity in human derived cells by Monimiastrum globosum, an endemic Mauritian plant. Toxicology in Vitro 20(8):1427-1434.
Crossref

 

Mizushina Y, Nishimura K, Takenaka Y, Takeuchi T, Sugawara F, Yoshida H, Tanahashi T (2010). Inhibitory effects of docosyl p-coumarate on DNA topoisomerase activity and human cancer cell growth. International Journal of Oncology 37(4):993-1000.
Crossref

 

Mojarrab M, Lagzian, MS, Emami SA, Asili J, Tayarani-Najaran Z (2013). In vitro antiproliferative and apoptotic activity of different fractions of Artemisia armeniaca. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 23(5):783-788.
Crossref

 

Moreira DL, Teixeira SS, Monteiro MHD, De-Oliveira ACAX, Paumgartten FJR (2014). Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 24(2014): 248-257.
Crossref

 

Mota TC, Cardoso P, Gomes LM, Vieira P, Corrêa R, Santana PDPB, Miranda MS, Burbano RM, Bahia MO (2011). In vitro evaluation of the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of artesunate, an antimalarial drug, in human lymphocytes. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 52(7):590-594.
Crossref

 

Moteetee A, van Wyk BE (2011). The medical ethnobotany of Lesotho; a review. Bothalia 41(1):209-228.
Crossref

 

Mulyaningsih S, Sporer F, Zimmermann S, Reichling J, Wink M (2010). Synergistic properties of the terpenoids aromadendrene and 1, 8- cineole from the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Phytomedicine 17(13):1061-1066.
Crossref

 

Nagao M, Wakabayashi K, Fujita Y, Tahira T, Ochiaia T, Sugimura T (1986). Mutagenic compounds in soy sauce, Chinese cabbage, coffee and herbal teas, In: Genetic Toxicology of the Diet, I. Knudsen, Ed., pp. 55-62, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA.

 

Nagarathna PKM, Wesley MJ, Sriram Reddy P, Reena K (2013). Review on Genotoxicity, its Molecular Mechanisms and Prevention. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 22(1, 43):236-243.

 

Nair JJ, Aremu AO, Van Staden J (2012). Anti-inflammatory effects of Leucosidea sericea (Rosaceae) and identification of the active constituents. South African Journal of Botany 80:75-76.
Crossref

 

Nguyen T, Fluss L, Hodej R, Ginther G, Leighton T (1989). "The distribution of mutagenic activity in red rose and white wines. Mutation Research 223(2):205-212.
Crossref

 

Nordin N, Majid NA, Hashim NM, Rahman MA, Hassan Z, Ali HM (2015). Liriodenine, an aporphine alkaloid from Enicosanthellum pulchrum, inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells through induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway and blocking cell cycle progression. Drug Design, Development and Therapy 9:1437-1448.
Crossref

 

Oyedare BM, Bakare AA, Akinboro A (2009). Genotoxicity assessment of water extracts of Ocimum gratissimum, Morinda lucida and Citrus medica using the Allium cepa assay. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas 8(2):97-103.

 

Padmanabhan P, Sujana KA (2008). Animal products in traditional medicine from Attappady hills of Western Ghats. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7(2):326-329.

 

Parry EM, Mumba LE, Asita A, Parry JM (1999). Mechanisms of Action of Aneuploidy Inducing Chemicals with Particular Reference to Spindle Inhibitors and Neurotoxins. In: Trends in Environmental Mutagenesis. Sobti RC, Obe G, Quillardet P. (Eds., Tausco Book distributors, New Delhi, India, pp. 101-110.

 

Pendota SC, Aremu AO, Slav?tínská LP, Rárová L, Grúz J, Dole┼żal K, Van Staden J (2018). Identi?cation and characterization of potential bioactive compounds from the leaves of Leucosidea sericea. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 220:169-176.
Crossref

 

Petrovska BB (2012). Historical review of medicinal plants' usage. Pharmacognosy reviews 6(11):1-5.
Crossref

 

Pitso TR, Ashafa AO (2015). Influence of different drying methods on the composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 18(1):146-153.
Crossref

 

Priyanka MR, Kumari P, Kumar B (2019). Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Aqueous Extracts of Medicinal Plants on Allium cepa L. IOSR Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry 5(2):35-49.

 

Pumiputavon K, Chaowasku T, Saenjum C, Osathanunkul M, Wungsintaweekul B, Chawansuntati K, Wipasa J, Lithanatudom P (2017). Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction by methanolic leaves extracts of four Annonaceae plants. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 17:294-305.
Crossref

 

Qazzaz ME, Raja VJ, Lim KH, Kam TS, Lee JB, Gershkovich P, Bradshaw TD (2016). In vitro anticancer properties and biological evaluation of novel natural alkaloid jerantinine B. Cancer Letters, 370(2):185-197.
Crossref

 

Rabbani-Chadegani A, Paydar P, Amirshenava M, Aramvash A (2015). An in vitro study on the effect of vinca alkaloid, vinorelbine, on chromatin histone, HMGB proteins and induction of apoptosis in mice non-adherent bone marrow cells. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 38(2):220-226.
Crossref

 

Rank J, Nielsen MH (1994). Evaluation of the Allium anaphase-telophase test in relation to genotoxicity screening of industrial wastewater. Mutation Research 312:1724.
Crossref

 

Schimmer O, Kruger A, Paulini H, Haefele F (1994). An evaluation of 55 commercial plant extracts in the Ames mutagenicity test. Pharmazie 49(6):448-451.

 

Schuchmann M, Galle PR (2004). Sensitizing to apoptosis-sharpening the medical sword. Journal of Hepatology 40:335-336.
Crossref

 

Shale TL, Stirk WA, Van Staden J (1999). Screening of medicinal plants used in Lesotho for anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 67:347-354.
Crossref

 

Sharma R, Kishore N, Hussein AA, Lall N (2014). The potential of Leucosidea sericea against Propionibacterium acne's. Phytochemistry Letters 7(1):124-129.
Crossref

 

Soliman MI (2001). Genotoxicity testing of neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) using the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Journal of Biological Sciences 1(11):1021-1027.
Crossref

 

Spies L, Koekemoer T, Sowemimo A, Goosen E, Van de Venter M (2013). Caspase-dependent apoptosis is induced by Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. in a mitochondria-dependent manner after G2/M arrest. South African Journal of Botany 84:104-109.
Crossref

 

Stubbs L, Carver EA, Cacheiro NL, Shelby M, Generoso W (1997). Generation and characterization of heritable reciprocal translocations in mice. Methods 13(4):397-408.
Crossref

 

Tayarani-Najaran Z, Sareban M, Gholami A, Emami SA, Mojarrab M (2013). Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different extracts of Artemisia turanica Krasch. on K562 and HL-60 cell lines. The Scientific World Journal Volume 2013, Article ID 628073, P 6.
Crossref

 

Taylor JLS, Elgorashi EE, Maes A, Van Gorp U, De Kimpe N, Van Puyvelde L, Van Staden J, Verschaeve L (2003). Investigating the safety of plants used in South African traditional medicine-testing for genotoxicity in the micronucleus and alkaline Comet assays. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 42:144-154.
Crossref

 

Tedesco SB, Laughinghouse IV HD (2012). Bioindicator of Genotoxicity: The Allium cepa Test. In: Srivastava JK (ed.) Environmental Contamination. Rijeka Croatia: InTech. pp. 137-156.

 

Teixeira R O, Camparoto M L, Mantovani M S, Vicentini V E P (2003). Assessment of two medicinal plants, Psidium guajava L. and Achillea millefolium L., in in vitro and in vivo assays. Genetics and Molecular Biololy 26(4):551-555.
Crossref

 

Thring TSA, Weitz FM (2006). Medicinal plant use in the Bredasdorp/Elim region of the Southern Overberg in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103(2):261-275.
Crossref

 

Uysal A, Zengin G, Mollica A, Gunes E, Locatelli M, Yilmaz T, Aktumsek A (2016). Chemical and biological insights on Cotoneaster integerrimus: A new (-)- epicatechin source for food and medicinal applications. Phytomedicine 23(10):979-988.
Crossref

 

Van Wyk B, Van Wyk P (1997). Field guide to trees of Southern Africa. 1st Ed. Cape-town: Struik publishers.

 

van Wyk BE (2008). A broad review of commercially important southern African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119(3):342-355.
Crossref

 

van Wyk B-E, Wink M (2015). Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs and Poisons. Briza, Kew Publishing, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.
Crossref

 

Venables L, Koekemoer T, Van de Venter M, Goosen E. (2016). Isoalantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. and its in vitro mechanism of induced cell death in HeLa cells. South African Journal of Botany 103:216-221.
Crossref

 

Verschaeve L, Van Staden J (2008). Mutagenic and antimutagenic properties of extracts from South African traditional medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119(3):575-587.
Crossref

 

Wang J, Yang X, Bao A, Liu X, Zeng, J, Liu X, Yao J, Zhang J, Lei Z (2017). Microwave-assisted synthesis, structure and anti-tumor activity of selenized Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 95:1108-1118.
Crossref

 

Whelan L, Ryan M (2004). Effects of the polyacetylene capillin on human tumour cell lines. Anticancer Research 24:2281-2286.

 

Wink M (2015). Modes of Action of Herbal Medicines and Plant Secondary Metabolites. Medicines 2(3):251-286.
Crossref

 

Wynder EL, Hall NEL, Polansky M (1983) "Epidemiology of coffee and pancreatic cancer. Cancer Research 43(8):3900-3906.

 

Zeng YT, Jiang JM, Lao HY, Guo JW, Lun YN, Yang M (2015). Antitumor and apoptotic activities of the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Artemisia indica. Molecular Medicine Reports 11(3):2234-2240.
Crossref

 

Zhang CZ, Spektor A, Cornils H, Francis JM, Jackson EK, Liu S, Meyerson M, Pellman D (2015). Chromothripsis from DNA damage in micronuclei. Nature 522(7555):179-184.
Crossref

 

Zhang Z, Chang Q, Zhu M, Huang Y, Ho WKK, Chen ZY (2001). Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 12(3):144-152.
Crossref

 

Zink T, Chaffin J (1998). Herbal health products: what family physicians need to know. American Family Physician 58(5):1133-1140.