Journal of
Physiology and Pathophysiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Physiol. Pathophysiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-260X
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPAP
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 52

Full Length Research Paper

Acute toxicity profile of ethanolic extracts of Croton gratissimus Burch and Schrankia leptocarpa DC in rats: Medicinal plants used in the treatment of arterial hypertension in Beninese traditional medicine

Koutchiko Angelus Henok Segla
  • Koutchiko Angelus Henok Segla
  • Laboratory of Physiopathology/Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Attakpa Selidji Eugene
  • Attakpa Selidji Eugene
  • Laboratory of Physiopathology/Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Akotegnon Rodrigue
  • Akotegnon Rodrigue
  • Laboratory of Physiopathology/Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Guinnin Felix
  • Guinnin Felix
  • Laboratory of Physiopathology/Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Senou Maximin
  • Senou Maximin
  • Laboratory of Physiopathology/Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Amoussa Abdou Madjid
  • Amoussa Abdou Madjid
  • Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactives Natural Substances, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-calavi 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Lagnika Latifou
  • Lagnika Latifou
  • Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactives Natural Substances, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-calavi 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Sina Haziz
  • Sina Haziz
  • Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology 05 BP 1604 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Yedomonhan Hounnankpon
  • Yedomonhan Hounnankpon
  • Laboratory of Botany and Plant Ecology, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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Baba-Moussa Farid
  • Baba-Moussa Farid
  • Laboratory of Microbiology and Food Technology, Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-calavi 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Sezan Alphonse
  • Sezan Alphonse
  • Biomembranes and Cellular Signaling Laboratory, Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Abomey-calavi 01 BP: 4521 Cotonou, Benin.
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Baba-Moussa Lamine
  • Baba-Moussa Lamine
  • Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Technology 05 BP 1604 Cotonou, University of Abomey-calavi, Benin.
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  •  Received: 18 October 2021
  •  Accepted: 10 January 2022
  •  Published: 28 February 2022

Abstract

Croton gratissimus Burch. and Schrankia leptocarpa DC. are two plants from the Beninese flora which are traditionally used for the treatment of arterial hypertension. The present study investigated the acute toxicity of ethanolic extracts of these plants. The experiment was conducted according to OECD guideline 423 categories 5 using a single dose of 5000mg/kg of the extracts. The average lethal doses (LD50) of the extracts are higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight.  The oral administration of C. gratissimus and Schrankia leptocarpa extracts to the rats of all groups provoked a significant decrease in the plasma levels of AST (P < 0.05) compared to the control batch between day 1 and day 14.  There was no significant alteration in the creatinine levels in the all treated groups.  The authors results showed that acute treatments with C. gratissimus and Schrankia leptocarpa extracts significantly (p<0.05) elevated serum total protein.  However, the administration of the Schrankia leptocarpa extract to rats resulted in a statistically significant decrease (p< 0.05) in WBCs, GRA in the different batches between day 1 and day 14. The Schrankia leptocarpa extract caused a significant increase (p< 0.05) in MCV, in haematocrit, in blood platelets between day 1 and day 14. The C. gratissimus extract caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in blood platelets, in neutrophil in the different batches between day 1 and day 14. It appears that the extracts can be used therapeutically and that C. gratissimus may have hepatoprotective and immunostimulatory effects. Finally, Schrankia leptocarpa in addition to an immunostimulant effect could prevent microcytic anaemia.

Key words: Croton gratissimus, Schrankia leptocarpa, acute toxicity, lethal doses.