Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 651

Full Length Research Paper

Blood pressure pattern and hypertension related risk factors in an urban community in Southwest Nigeria: The Mokola hypertension initiative project, Ibadan, Nigeria

Ajayi I. O.*
  • Ajayi I. O.*
  • Department of Epidermiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty Of Public Health, College Of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
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Soyannwo M. A. O.
  • Soyannwo M. A. O.
  • Department of Epidermiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty Of Public Health, College Of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
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Asinobi A. O.,
  • Asinobi A. O.,
  • Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
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Afolabi N. B.
  • Afolabi N. B.
  • Department of Epidermiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty Of Public Health, College Of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
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Ayede A. I.
  • Ayede A. I.
  • Department of Epidermiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty Of Public Health, College Of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
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Bamgboye E. A.
  • Bamgboye E. A.
  • Department of Paediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 02 January 2017
  •  Accepted: 02 March 2017
  •  Published: 30 April 2017

Abstract

There is rising incidence of hypertension especially among children and young adults in Nigeria. Hypertension in childhood could be harbinger for adult hypertension. This study looked at the prevalence of hypertension in children and adults in an urban community. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 5,733 respondents aged 3 to 78 years residents in Mokola Ibadan, South Western Nigeria selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were collected and Chi square test and logistic regression were used to determine significant determinants and predictors of hypertension at p<0.05. Prevalence of hypertension was 27.3% in adults and 12.8% in children < 18 years. Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) was found in 10.3% of adults and 4.4% of children while isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) was found in 4.7% of adults and 5.3% of children. Odds of ISH were significantly 2 times greater among female compared with male children. Among adults, the odds of hypertension and ISH were 1.32 and 2 times, respectively more among the males compared to females. Obese children were about 2 times (OR = 1.50 95%CI: 1.03 to 2.20) and overweight and obese adults were 3 times (OR = 3.20; 95%CI: 2.15 to 4.75) and 4 times (OR =3.5 (95%CI: 2.40 -5.22), respectively more likely to be hypertensive. Adults, male, ever smoked, ever used alcohol and employed were significantly more likely to be hypertensive. Predictors of hypertension in children were obesity [AOR = 1.44 (95%CI 0.98, 2.10)] and among adults were, middle age 35-55 years [AOR = 3.80 (95%CI 2.73, 5.29)] and elderly age 55+ years [AOR = 7.37 (95%CI 4.90, 11.10)], overweight [AOR= 2.55 (95%CI 1.39, 4.71)] and obese [AOR = .02 (95%CI 1.65, 5.52)]. High prevalence of hypertension among children and adults as well as linear increase with age in this community underscores the need for life course approach to control hypertension.

Key words: Hypertension, blood pressure, adults and children, risk factors, urban community.