Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 223

Full Length Research Paper

Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities, and the acute toxicity of extracts from of Brucea sumatrana Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) leaves collected in Mai-Ndombe, Democratic Republic of Congo

Cimanga R. Kanyanga*
  • Cimanga R. Kanyanga*
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Tshodi M. Ehata
  • Tshodi M. Ehata
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Nsaka S. Lumpu
  • Nsaka S. Lumpu
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Kikweta C. Munduku
  • Kikweta C. Munduku
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Mbenza A. Phuati
  • Mbenza A. Phuati
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Kambu O. Kabangu
  • Kambu O. Kabangu
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 212, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of Congo.
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Cos, P.
  • Cos, P.
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, University of Antwerp, Universisteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium.
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Maes, L.
  • Maes, L.
  • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biomedical and Veterinary Sciences, Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, University of Antwerp, Universisteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp, Belgium.
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Apers, S.
  • Apers, S.
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Natural Products and Food-Research and Analysis (NatuRa), University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerp, Belgium.
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Vlietinck, A. J
  • Vlietinck, A. J
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Natural Products and Food-Research and Analysis (NatuRa), University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerp, Belgium.
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Pieters, L.
  • Pieters, L.
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Natural Products and Food-Research and Analysis (NatuRa), University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerp, Belgium.
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  •  Received: 10 June 2014
  •  Accepted: 16 March 2015
  •  Published: 30 April 2015

Abstract

Results from the in vitro evaluation of the antiprotozoal activity of the aqueous extract, the 80% methanol extract and its fractions from the leaves of Brucea sumatrana against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Lesihmania infantum, the multidrug-resistant K1 and chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strains of Plasmodium falciparum indicated that all samples from the leaves extract presented interesting antiprotozoal activity at different extents. The 80% methanol extract, its chloroform acid, petroleum ether and 80% methanol soluble fractions and the aqueous extract exhibited strong activity against Trypanosoma b. brucei, T. cruzi, L. infantum and the multidrug-resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum with IC50 values from < 0.25 to 4.35 µg/ml as well as against chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from < 0.02 to 2.0.4 µg/ml. Most samples were cytotoxic against MRC-5 cell lines (0.2 < cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) < 24.5 µg/ml) and showed good selective effect against all tested parasites. In acute toxicity, the aqueous extract was found to be non-toxic and its LD50 was estimated to be greater than 5 g/kg. In addition, it did not significantly modify the concentration levels of some evaluated biochemical and hematological parameters in rats. These results constitute a scientific validation supporting and justifying the traditional use of the leaves of B. sumatrana for the treatment of malaria, sleeping sickness and at some extent Chaga disease.

Key words: Brucea sumatrana, Simaroubaceae, leaves, extracts, antiprotozoal activity, cytotoxic activity, acute toxicity.