Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 205

Full Length Research Paper

Immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from plants used as antimalarial in Mali

Adama Denou
  • Adama Denou
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali.
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Adiaratou Togola
  • Adiaratou Togola
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali.
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Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen
  • Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1068, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
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Bing-Zhao Zhang
  • Bing-Zhao Zhang
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1068, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
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Abubakar Ahmed
  • Abubakar Ahmed
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, P. M. B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.
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Dalen Gwatau Dafam
  • Dalen Gwatau Dafam
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, P. M. B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.
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John C.Aguiyi
  • John C.Aguiyi
  • Department of pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical science, University of Jos, P M. B. 2084, Jos, Nigeria.
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Rokia Sanogo
  • Rokia Sanogo
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali.
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Drissa Diallo
  • Drissa Diallo
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Science, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, BP 1805, Bamako, Mali.
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Berit Smestad Paulsen
  • Berit Smestad Paulsen
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1068, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway.
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  •  Received: 28 March 2019
  •  Accepted: 10 May 2019
  •  Published: 31 August 2019

Abstract

Medicinal plants used against malaria in Mali have previously been tested for their antiplasmodial activities using their organic solvent and water extracts. As the healers mainly use the water extracts for their treatments of malaria-patients, our aim was to study the water-soluble components from Malian plants used for treatment of malaria. Argemone mexicana (aerial parts), Sarcocephalus latifolius (root bark), Vitex doniana (leaves), and Malarial-5® (an improved traditional medicine (ITM) in tea) were the objects of our studies. Water extracts of these plants contained primarily polysaccharides. Due to this, the studies focused on the determination of the monosaccharide composition of the polymers present as well as assessing the immunomodulatory properties of the polysaccharide fractions isolated from these plants. Each plant material was extracted sequentially with dichloromethane, 80% ethanol and water at 100°C. The polysaccharides were obtained using gel filtration of the aqueous extracts and their monosaccharide compositions were determined using gas chromatography. Immunomodulatory effects were assessed using the complement fixation test and macrophage stimulation. All aqueous extracts from the four samples contained polysaccharides. The monosaccharide compositions vary between the plants. Arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid were present in all samples, glucose being the main monomer. These polysaccharides showed complement fixing activity and induced nitrite oxide release from macrophages in a dose dependent manner. The polysaccharide fractions of A. mexicana (Am1) and V. doniana (Vd1) showed the most potent activities. These two fractions had an ICH50 of 2.4 and 6.3 μg/mL respectively in the complement fixation assay. The same two fractions induced a dose dependent release of nitrite oxide from macrophages. The results demonstrated that antimalarial plants contain polysaccharides with immunomodulatory properties. This preliminary work constitutes a new approach of antimalarial studies.

Key words: Polysaccharides, immunomodulatory effects, antimalarial plants, Mali.