Journal of
Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy

  • Abbreviation: J. Pharmacognosy Phytother.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2502
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPP
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 234

Full Length Research Paper

Pharmacognostic, physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Fadogia cienkowski Schweinf (Rubiaceae)

Bruce S. O.
  • Bruce S. O.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Onyegbule F. A.
  • Onyegbule F. A.
  • Department Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ezugwu C. O.
  • Ezugwu C. O.
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 27 June 2019
  •  Accepted: 02 August 2019
  •  Published: 31 October 2019


Fadogia cienkowskii is a shrub used in folklore medicine. Evaluations of the leaves were carried out to determine the macroscopic, microscopic, chemomicroscopic, physicochemical and phytochemical profiles using standard methods. The macroscopic examination revealed fresh leaves are green, odourless with a bitter taste. The leaf is oblong-elliptic in shape and sub-acute at apex; rounded at the base with entire margin. Microscopic examination indicated the presence of calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, xylem, phloem, trichomes, epidermal cells, collenchyma cells, paracytic stomata and reticulate vessels. Chemomicroscopic characters present are lignin, starch, cellulose, mucilage and calcium oxalate crystals. The physicochemical evaluation indicated 4.6% moisture content, 1.4% total ash value, 0.8% acid insoluble ash value, 0.4% water soluble ash value, 7.8% water soluble extractive value and 9.0% alcohol soluble extractive value. The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of tannins (17.6%), saponins (1%), glycosides (2.5%), alkaloids (3.3%), steroids (1.1%), terpenoids (6.6%), phenols (8.8%), flavonoids (17.7%) and the absence of hydrogen cyanide. This study is useful in pharmacognostic standardization of this plant. The parameters laid down will be useful and suitable for compilation of a monograph and help in identifying this plant in its crude form and prevent it from adulteration and ensure its therapeutic efficacy.

Key words: Fadogia cienkowskii, pharmacognostic, phytochemical, physicochemical, macroscopic, microscopic, chemomicroscopic.