Berlinia grandiflora is used for managing numerous ailments including tumor in South-west, Nigeria. The phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of B. grandiflora leaf were determined in this study. The absolute ethanol extract was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The antioxidant activity was carried out by standard analytical methods. The antiproliferative activity was done using growth inhibition activity of Sorghum bicolor seed radicle with methotrexate as the reference drug. The presence of some phytochemicals known to have antioxidant properties and exert anticancer effects is revealed in this study. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of betulinc acid, ferulic acid, rutin and caffeic acid. However, ferulic acid, rutin, and caffeic acid were identified for the first time in B. grandiflora. Free radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity and nitric oxide inhibitory activity were exhibited by the extract, with IC50 values of 88.3, 7.4 and 99 µg/mL, respectively. While ascorbic acid, the reference compound, used in this study has IC50 values of 0.7, 3.4 and 7.4 µg/mL, respectively. The total phenol content expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) was 75 mg/g. A dose-dependent antiproliferative activity was observed with IC50 values of 0.50, 0.59 and 0.29 µg/mL after 48, 72 and 96 h of treatment, respectively. This result justifies the folklore use of the plant for managing cancer in Nigeria and the plant’s potential as a new phyto-chemo-therapy.
Key words: Antiproliferative, antioxidant, phytochemicals, cancer, Berlinia grandiflora, betulinic acid.
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