Today sophisticated modern research tools for evaluation of the plant drugs are available but microscopic method is one of the simplest and cheapest methods to start with for establishing the correct identity of the source materials. Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb was carried out to determine its macro- and microscopical characters and also some of its physical constants. Externally, the leaves possess a cordate base, a sinuate and dentate margin, acute to acuminate apex and both surfaces are very rough with rigid hairs surface. Internally, its shows the presences of an anomocytic stomata, unicellular, both glandular and simple covering trichomes are scattered as such throughout or attached with the cells of the epidermis. Majority of the glandular trichomes are with 4 to 5 celled uniseriate stalk and unicellular head very few are short and with uni- to bicellular stalk and uni- to multicellular head especially from that of petiole region. Simple covering multicellular uniseriate thick walled trichomes are of various sizes and usually of the cells of both simple and glandular trichomes are often embedded with cystolith. Phytochemical studies of the powdered leaves revealed the presences of alkaloids, resins, glycosides, flavonides and some carbohydrates. The pharmacognostic profile of the leaves will assist in standardization for quality, purity and sample identification.
Key words: Trichosanthes dioica, pharmacognostic standardization, male leaf morphology.
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