Objective: To study detailed Pharmacognostic profile and preliminary phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. commonly known as â€˜indigoâ€™ belongs to the family Fabaceae. It is distributed through the hotter parts of India. Medicinal uses include the juice of the leaves as a prophylactic against hydrophobia, and as a decoction for blennorrhagia; plant extract as the treatment for epilepsy, nervous disorders, bronchitis, and as an ointment for sores, old ulcers, and haemorrhoids; and roots for hepatitis, scorpion bites, and urinary complaint.
Leaf of I. tinctoria Linn. was studied by Macroscopical, Microscopical, Quantitative microscopy, Physicochemical, Phytochemical analysis of leaf powder of the plant and other methods for standardization recommended by WHO.
Macroscopically the leaves with 9-13 leaflets and broken pieces of rachis, opposite, oblanceolate with very short mucronate tip, pale greenish black in colour, mucronate apex, cuneate base, smooth texture, characteristic odour & taste. Leaflets 1-2.5 cm long and 0.3-1.2 cm wide. Microscopically, the leaflet appears wavy in T.S view; prominent adaxial and abaxial thickening, the vascular bundle is simple and wide, angular thick-walled xylem elements, the thick arc of phloem. Sclerenchymatous bands occur on the adaxial side, cylindrical with thick walls epidermal cells. Small, collateral vascular strand, anamocytic stomata, thin-walled lignified sclerenchyma cells are wide on the adaxial side. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the powder showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, mucilage, and saponins.
Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material in future investigations and applications.
Keywords: Indigofera tinctoria, Macroscopy, Microscopy Phytochemical evaluation