Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system. This dreadful disease is found in all parts of the world and is becoming a serious threat to mankind health. There are lots of chemical agents available to control and to treat diabetic patients, but total recovery from diabetes has not been reported up to this date. Alternative to these synthetic agents, plants provide a potential source of hypoglycemic drugs and are widely used in several traditional systems of medicine to prevent diabetes. Several medicinal plants have been investigated for their beneficial use in different types of diabetes. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalities using variety of mechanisms. Powdered seed of Eugenia jambolana was selected in this study to find out the phytochemicals & antidiabetic property. Phytochemicals were extracted using water. For the current article screening of alkaloid, carbohydrates, glycosides, flavanoids, proteins, tannins & phenolic compounds and also done single dose antidiabetic activity. Screening of phytochemicals showed positive result for the presence of Alkaloid, carbohydrates, flavanoids, aminoacids, saponins and steroids.
After preliminary phytochemical investigations, aqueous extract & its fractions were evaluated for activity employing single dose in normal and alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. All the extract and fractions were given orally at a dose of 400mg/kg b.w. the present study shows that extract of Eugenia jambolana at 400 mg/kg b.w has significant antidiabetic activity. Among all fractions, polysaccharide fraction of Eugenia jambolana more significantly reduced blood wasglucose level & nearly equal to standard glibenclamide after single dose treatment.
Keywords: Eugenia jambolana, phytochemical screening, antidiabetic activity