Journal of
Parasitology and Vector Biology

  • Abbreviation: J. Parasitol. Vector Biol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2510
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPVB
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 193

Full Length Research Paper

Surveillance of plasmepsin 2 copy number gene in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal

Amy Gaye
  • Amy Gaye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Tolla Ndiaye
  • Tolla Ndiaye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Mouhamad Sy
  • Mouhamad Sy
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Awa B. Deme
  • Awa B. Deme
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Baba Dieye
  • Baba Dieye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Yaye Die Ndiaye
  • Yaye Die Ndiaye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Mamadou Samb Yade
  • Mamadou Samb Yade
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Mamadou Alpha Diallo
  • Mamadou Alpha Diallo
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Khadim Diongue
  • Khadim Diongue
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Mamane N. Garba
  • Mamane N. Garba
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Amy Bei
  • Amy Bei
  • Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
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Ibrahima Mbaye Ndiaye
  • Ibrahima Mbaye Ndiaye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Aita Sene
  • Aita Sene
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Abdoulaye Tine
  • Abdoulaye Tine
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Sarah K. Volkman
  • Sarah K. Volkman
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Aida Sadikh Badiane
  • Aida Sadikh Badiane
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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Daouda Ndiaye
  • Daouda Ndiaye
  • Laboratory of Parasitology Mycology, Aristide le Dantec Hospital, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.
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  •  Received: 21 September 2021
  •  Accepted: 28 June 2022
  •  Published: 31 July 2022

Abstract

The development of resistance to antimalarial drugs is a major challenge for global malaria control. Full Plasmodium falciparum resistance to dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine treatment has been reported recently in Cambodia. These events were directly associated with increased copy number variations (CNVs) in the plasmepsin system, including the PfPlasmepsin 2 gene. Pfplasmepsin 2 copy number was the most significant molecular signature associated with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine treatment failure. Even though the piperaquine resistance has not been observed in regions in which artemisinin resistance has not been documented, it is possible to find an amplification of the Pfplasmepsin 2 gene in these regions. In this present study, we investigate to do a surveillance of Pfplasmepsin 2 copy number variations in Senegal by qPCR. Pfplasmepsin 2 copy number was assessed in 120 P. falciparum positive patients, 60 from Dakar and 60 from Kedougou by qPCR and an amplification of the Pfplasmepsin 2 genes was measured by using five standards of mixed synthetic gene fragments. Using a copy number threshold of 1.7 and 1.73% carried a multiple copies of Pfplasmepsin 2, whilst one copy of the gene was found in 98.26% of the isolates. Our results show that the CNVs associated with resistance to piperaquine are probably already frequent in Senegal. Paradoxically, Pfplasmepsin 2 multi-copy is generally found in parts of Africa where dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine failures are rare and resistance to piperaquine has not yet been described. However, it is no evidence to confirm piperaquine resistance in Senegal.

Key words: PfPlasmepsin 2 copy number, Senegal, Piperaquine, resistance, drug resistance.

Abbreviation

CNV, Copy Number Variation; ACT, Artemisinin combination therapy; WHO, World Health Organization; NMCP, National Malaria Control Programme; AL,  Arthmeter-Lumefantrine; DHA-PPQ, Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine; IPT, intermittent preventive treatment; SP, Sulfadoxine–Pyrimethamine; SMC, seasonal malaria chemoprevention; PfPM2, Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin 2; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid.