Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 212

Full Length Research Paper

Acute and subacute toxicity studies of hydroethanolic extract of Baillonella toxisperma Pierre fruit pulp

Takuissu Nguemto Guy Roussel
  • Takuissu Nguemto Guy Roussel
  • Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, P. O. Box 812, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon. 2Cameroon Nutrition and Dietetics Research Center, J&A Oben Foundation, P. O. Box 8348, Yaounde, Cameroon. 3Institute of Medical Research and Studies of Medicinal Plants (IMPM), P. O. Box: 13 033, Yaounde, Cameroon.
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Edoun Ebouel Ferdinand Lanvin
  • Edoun Ebouel Ferdinand Lanvin
  • Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, P. O. Box 812, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon. 3Institute of Medical Research and Studies of Medicinal Plants (IMPM), P. O. Box: 13 033, Yaounde, Cameroon.
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Youovop Fotso Janvier Aimé
  • Youovop Fotso Janvier Aimé
  • Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, P. O. Box 812, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon.
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Ngondi Judith Laure
  • Ngondi Judith Laure
  • Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, P. O. Box 812, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon.
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Oben Julius Enyong
  • Oben Julius Enyong
  • Department of Biochemistry, Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, P. O. Box 812, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, Cameroon. 2Cameroon Nutrition and Dietetics Research Center, J&A Oben Foundation, P. O. Box 8348, Yaounde, Cameroon.
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  •  Received: 15 September 2021
  •  Accepted: 12 October 2021
  •  Published: 30 November 2021

Abstract

Baillonella toxisperma Pierre, fruit pulp is largely used in traditional medicine. No toxicity study was done on this fruit pulp. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute and subacute toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract of the fruit pulp of B. toxisperma. An acute toxicity study was conducted at 2000 mg/kg of body weight as a 14-day limit test in Wistar albino rats. Throughout the experiment, general signs of toxicity were noted. Subsequently, a subacute toxicity study was performed at a dose of 400     mg/kg of body weight for 28 days. General signs of toxicity were also noted, after animal sacrifice, histological, hematological, and biochemical analyses (ALAT, ASAT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total proteins, creatinine) were performed. At LD50?2000 mg/kg, no general signs of toxicity were noted in either acute or subacute conditions. No signs of toxicity were noted histologically, while slight increases in granulocytes and decreases in lymphocytes were noted hematologically. Biochemically, while no renal observations were made, the extract caused hepatic cytolysis. The fruit pulp of B. toxisperma P could be hepatotoxic at high doses.

Key words: Hydroethanolic extract of Baillonella toxisperma Pierre fruit pulp, acute toxicity, subacute toxicity.

Abbreviation

ALAT; Alanine Amino Transferase, ASAT; Aspartate Amino Transferase, LD; Lethal Dose; MCHC; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration, MCH; Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, MCV; Mean Corpuscular Volume, MPV; Mean Platelets Volume, NIH: National Institutes of Health, OECD; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, RP; Red Pulp, WP; White Pulp.