Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 212

Full Length Research Paper

Wastewater COD removal using sol-gel immobilized humic acid

Rafik Helles
Department of Chemistry, Alaqsa University, Gaza, Palestine.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 03 March 2010
  •  Published: 30 April 2010


In this study, humic acid which contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties is successfully entrapped in sol-gel matrix which is used to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Gaza wastewater. The method was very efficient in which more than 90% reduction of the COD had been achieved, it was found that contact time with the matrix, temperature, pH, particles size, adsorbent dose, and agitation speed effect the COD reduction.


Key words: Wastewater, humic acid, COD, sol-gel.