Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 210

Full Length Research Paper

1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its derivatives in marketed Clarius werneri caught from Uganda’s major urban wetlands

Proscovia Nnamuyomba
  • Proscovia Nnamuyomba
  • Department of Chemistry, Gulu University, P.O. Box 166, Gulu, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Jolocam Mbabazi
  • Jolocam Mbabazi
  • Department of Chemistry, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar
Muhammad Ntale*
  • Muhammad Ntale*
  • Department of Chemistry, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 10 June 2014
  •  Accepted: 29 July 2014
  •  Published: 31 July 2014


The presence of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and derivatives in the Clarius werneri of Uganda’s major urban wetland ecosystems was investigated. Solid dispersion extraction method for extraction, florisil column method for clean-up, gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) for analysis and gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) for confirmation of results were used in this study. The major DDT contaminants detected in the samples were p,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDE and p,p’-DDT which were found in 25, 22 and 21% of the samples, respectively. o,p’-DDD was detected in 19% and o,p’-DDT in 13% of the samples. For o,p’-DDE there were no measurable values since the levels were below limit of quantitation (LOQ). The concentrations of DDT derivatives ranged between ND-0.478 µg/kg for p,p’-DDE, ND-0.387 µg/kg for o,p’-DDD, ND-0.476 µg/kg for p,p’-DDD, ND-0.345 µg/kg o,p’-DDT and ND-0.556 µg/kg for p,p’-DDT. The concentration of total DDT in C. werneri was in the range of 1.111 to 1.328 µg/kg dry wt. Generally, all the samples had DDT derivative levels below the maximum residue limit recommended by Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission.


Key words: 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), DDT derivatives, Clarius werneri, Uganda, wetlands.