Small ruminants farming is a traditional activity mostly practiced by local populations in developing countries since several centuries. Nowadays, due to many biotic and climatic factors, it faces various problems which damage smallholders’ income especially those related to gastrointestinal parasites. In opposite to the chemical drugs use in controlling those parasites, medicinal plants have been investigated with fewer side effects on both the meat quality and the environment. This current study aimed at reviewing Haemonchus contortus prevalence in small ruminants across the world and present medicinal plants that have been investigated in the last decades. H. contortus is identified as the most significant nematode parasite in small ruminants due to its high prevalence reported by many studies. Its presence in small ruminants results in a loss of feed absorption and disturbance of nutrient metabolism, which lead to poor performance and significant economic loss in the herds, especially in rural areas of developing countries. For the past decades, its control was mainly based on the use of chemical anthelmintics; whose use has been limited due to several factors like the irrational and misuse. Recently, the use of medicinal plants has been identified as alternatives methods of its control with conclusive results. Parts of plants or the whole plants of several plant species were reported to be relevant to control H. contortus infection in small ruminants such as: Bridelia ferruginea, Mitragyna inermis, Combretum glutinosum, Hagenia abyssinica, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Leucaena leucocephala, Phytolacca icosandra, Eucalyptus staigeriana, Carica papaya, Newbouldia laevis and Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloïdes.
Key words: Economic losses, gastrointestinal nematodes, chemical anthelmintics, medicinal plants, poor performance.
BW, Body weight; FSA, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences; GIN, gastrointestinal nematode/GINs: gastrointestinal nematodes; LESA, Laboratory of Ethnopharmacology and Animal Health; MP, metabolisable protein; UAC, University of Abomey-Calavi; WAAPP, West Africa Agricultural Productivity Project.
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