Soil stabilization has become one of the useful solutions to treat the soft soils to achieve the required engineering properties and specification so that structures can be placed safely without undergoing large settlements. Soil stabilization by admixture was developed in Japan during 1970s and 1980s. The treated soil has greater strength, reduced compressibility and lower hydraulic conductivity than the original soil. The use of admixture such as lime, cement, oils and bitumen is one of oldest and most widespread method for improving soil. When mixed with soil, it forms a material called soil-cement. The original technique known internationally as the deep mixing method (DMM) was developed simultaneously in Sweden and Japan in the mid-1970s. It is an in-situ soil treatment technology whereby the soil is blended with cementitious and/or other materials. Jet grouting is suitable to be used as the injection method for the DMM. It utilizes a fluid jet (air, water and/or grout) to erode and mix the in-situ soft or loose soils with grout. The grouting method is one of the ground improvement methods suitable for the soft soil. Chemical stabilization is the effective method to improve the soil properties by mixing additives to soils. Usually the additives are cement, lime, fly ash and bituminous material. The chemicals usually used are sodium silicate, acrylamide, N-methylolacrylamide, polyurethane epoxy resins, aminoplasts, phenoplasts, lignosulfonates, among others. The choice of a particular chemical for soil stabilization will depend upon many factors like, purpose, soil strength desired, toxicity, rheology among others.
Key words: Injection, jet grouting, chemical grouting, deep mixing method.
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