Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2748

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of non-ionizing radiation from radio frequency energy emitters in the urban area of Natal City, Brazil

Fred Sizenando Rossiter Pinheiro
  • Fred Sizenando Rossiter Pinheiro
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
  • Técia Maria de Oliveira Maranhão
  • Departamento de Toco-Ginecologia ,Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
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Mário Bernardo Filho
  • Mário Bernardo Filho
  • Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcântara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. 28 de Setembro 87 fundos, Brazil.
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Márcio Eduardo da Costa Rodrigues
  • Márcio Eduardo da Costa Rodrigues
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Gutembergue Soares da Silva
  • Gutembergue Soares da Silva
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Thiago Palhares de Sousa
  • Thiago Palhares de Sousa
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Manuel Antonio Bouzas Sanchis
  • Manuel Antonio Bouzas Sanchis
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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André Luiz Severiano Câmara
  • André Luiz Severiano Câmara
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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João Paulo da Silva Gonçalo
  • João Paulo da Silva Gonçalo
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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Andrei de Abiahy Carneiro da Cunha Braga
  • Andrei de Abiahy Carneiro da Cunha Braga
  • Departamento de Engenharia de Comunicações, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Central, Av.Sen. Salgado Filho 3000, Caixa Postal 1524, Lagoa Nova, Natal, CEP 59078-970 - Christmas -RN ? Brazil.
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  •  Received: 25 June 2014
  •  Accepted: 12 January 2015
  •  Published: 30 January 2015

Abstract

The massive increase of wireless communications in the world calls for responsible actions by governments in order to prevent possible health hazards. In addition to cellular towers overcrowding in urban areas, it is also important to consider other radio frequency radiations from different sources. The electric field intensity is one of the fundamental parameters to assess the exposure of human beings to Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR). In this study, all main non-ionizing radiation sources in the urban area of Natal, Brazil (a city of about 860.000 inhabitants) were located and characterized with respect to frequency band, telecommunications service and integrated electric field strength. Measurements of far electric field intensity with frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 3 GHz were made in a survey of 140 outdoor points spread across all the 167.26 km2 area of the city. The results obtained have made it possible to draw a map of the regions of the city according to different electric field and exposure ratio (ER) intensities. In 71.4% of the sampled outdoor points, the highest exposure ratio measured were originated from TV broadcasting services, 22.1% from Transmissions Cellular Towers and  6.4% from Frequency Modulated Broadcasting.
 
Key words: Non-ionizing radiation, electric field intensity, TV broadcasting, radio frequency radiation, measurement of radio frequency radiation, propagation in Urban Areas, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).