Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2739

Full Length Research Paper

Mode of joint action response to binary mixtures of three refined petroleum products by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings

L. O. Chukwu* and B. O. Okhumale
Aquatic Toxicology and Ecophysiology Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos State, Nigeria
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 24 July 2009
  •  Published: 31 August 2009


The toxicities of three refined petroleum products and their binary mixtures based on predetermined and equitoxic ratios of 1:1, 1:6 for petrol-kerosene; 1:1, 1:2 for petrol-diesel and 1:1, 1:3 for diesel–kerosene respectively were evaluated against the fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus, in laboratory bioassays. The interactions between binary mixtures showed significant departures from the action of the individual constituent compound when acting singly. On the basis of synergistic ratios (SRs) and concentration-addition models (RTU) used for the joint action evaluations, the interactions between the constituent toxicants in the various test proportions of the mixtures were largely in conformity with the  model of synergism (SR>1 and RTU > 1) except for petrol-kerosene (1:1) which was additive (SR=1). In most of the test combinations petrol was found to consistently increase the toxic effect of kerosene and diesel.  The joint action toxicity studies provides a means of identifying the integrated impact of chemical mixtures on different levels of biological function and could make a valuable and viable addition to routine management protocols for protecting fragile aquatic ecosystems.


Key words: Joint action, binary mixtures, refined petroleum products, synergism.