Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2758

Full Length Research Paper

Front line demonstrations on need based plant protection in pulses for enhancing productivity and profitability under farmer’s condition

A. K. Tripathi
  • A. K. Tripathi
  • Krishi Vigyan Kendra (JNKVV), Sagar (M.P.) 470002, India.
  • Google Scholar
K. S. Yadav
  • K. S. Yadav
  • Krishi Vigyan Kendra (JNKVV), Sagar (M.P.) 470002, India.
  • Google Scholar
V. P. Srivastava
  • V. P. Srivastava
  • Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Chhatarpur (M.P.), India.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 09 February 2015
  •  Accepted: 02 March 2015
  •  Published: 15 March 2015

 ABSTRACT

Pulses have high nutritional value and worldwide commercial importance because these are rich source of protein and fibers. The productivity of pulses is lower in comparison to potential yield due to several biotic and abiotic stress. To show the productivity potential and profitability of need based plant protection in pulse crops (Black gram, Pigeonpea, Gram, pea and Lentil) total 74 front line demonstrations (FLDs) were conducted in 08 villages of Chhatarpur and Sagar districts of Madhya Pradesh under rain fed and partially irrigated condition. The pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) population in Pigeonpea decreased by 56.6% with increase in seed yield (17.26%), net return Rs. 27430 and B:C ratio 5.03 with improved technology (IT) while larval population of pod borer in chick pea reduced by 80 per cent (from 1.5 to 0.3 per plant) with increase in yield of 28.1%. Yellow mosaic disease incidence in blackgram decreased significantly by application of Improved Technology by 61.5% (32.8 to 12.3%) which ultimately gave 50.7% higher grain yield. Seed treatment and soil application of Trichoderma viride decreased incidence of wilt disease by 68.6% in lentil and 68.1% in Gram, which also increased seed yield by 20.7 and 37.3% respectively. The management practice also gave net return of Rs. 15,230 and B:C ratio 3.37 in lentil crop and Rs. 25,650 net return and B:C ratio 4.0 in Gram as compared to FP plots (Rs. 11520 net profit and B:C ratio 3.08 for lentil and Rs. 17300 net profit and 3.27 B:C ratio for chickpea ).
 
Key words: Pigeonpea, gram, blackgram, IPM, Trichoderma viride, demonstration.
 


 INTRODUCTION

In India, pulses are the primary source of protein and fibers for the poor and vegetarians within the majority of population. Majority of farmers are small and marginal, cultivating pulse crops under rainfed conditions. India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. India produces 17.21 million tonnes of pulses from an area of 24.78 million ha. The average productivity of country is about 689 kg/ha against the global productivity of 857 kg/ha (GOI, 2010). In the rainfed area of Bundelkhand  region  of  Madhya  Pradesh   (Chhatarpur, Tikamgarh, Panna, Sagar, Damoh) pulses grows as cash crop by the farmers. In general, average productivity of Pigeonpea, gram  and lentil continues to be lower (670, 1070 and 422 kg/ha respectively) mainly due to its cultivation on marginal lands under poor management, inappropriate production technology (wilt susceptible varieties, under dose of fertilizers, application of poor plant protection measures) and heavy infestation of insect pest at various stage of crop. Gram, lentil and Pigeonpea are attacked by various insects at different growth stages but wilt and pod borer are the key pest that causes heavy economic loss throughout the country. One larva of Helicoverpa armigera is capable of damaging 30 to 40 pods in its life time. Estimates indicate that 8 larva reared on 10 plants (in 1 m row) caused up to 39% yield loss (Sharma et al., 2006; Agrawal et al., 2003; Goyal et al., 1991).
 
The continuous cultivation of pulse crops without proper crop rotation has led to increase in pest and disease incidence causing 40% yield loss. There is potential to increase production of pulses by using best production practices and proper plant protection measures at right time. One way of managing such pest effectively is to grow resistant cultivars. Intensive efforts are underway to develop high yielding and resistant cultivars of pulses in India. Another important approach by which these insect pest and diseases could be managed is adoption of integrated management practices (Agrawal et al., 2002). Several technologies and management options have been developed for pulses, that can significantly reduce the losses due to insect pest and diseases, but adoption of these technologies by farmers has been far less than anticipated. Realizing the importance of extending these technologies for managing insect pest and diseases in pulse crops at farmer’s level, front line demonstrations (FLDs) were conducted to show the productivity potential and profitability of need based plant protection measures. It is believed that these FLDs would enhance the adoptability of technologies based on plant protection measures in pulse crops amongst the farmers of Bundelkhand region and Chhattarpur and Sagar districts in particular.


 MATERIALS AND METHODS

The improved technology (IT) that is, need based plant protection including seed treatment with pesticides (insecticide and fungicide) and prophylactic sprays (biological and chemical) and spray of safer pesticides as and when required based on the nature of pest and its damage symptoms. The IT was demonstrated on 0.40 ha plots in comparison with farmers practice (FP) of no spraying or indiscriminate use of pesticides, in order to provide farmers an opportunity to compare, evaluate and choose themselves the best practice based on their own criteria. The details of IT are presented in Table 1. The 74 FLDs were conducted in 08 villages of Chhatarpur and Sagar districts of Madhya Pradesh under rainfed or partially irrigated condition during 2009 to 2013. The data on incidence of disease, population of insects, seed yield, cost of cultivation and gross monetary return were collected from IT plots and FP plots. The following formulae were used to calculate the parameters:
 
1. Insect incidence/ plant = Number of damaging stage of the insect/ plant
2. Increase in grain Yield=Grain yield form IT plot– Grain yield from FP plot /Grain yield from IT plot  X 100  
3. Net Return= Gross Return – Cost of cultivation
4. Benefit/ Cost Ratio= Net Return / Cost of Cultivation * 100        
 
 

 


 RESULTS

The results indicate that IT plots recorded mean productivity improvement of 30% as compared to FP plots (Table 2). The pod borer (H. armigera) population in Pigeonpea decreased by 56.6% with increase in seed yield (17.26%), net return Rs. 27430 and B:C ratio 5.03 with improved technology as compared to farmers practice. IPM practices reduced the larval population of pod borer in Gram by 80% (from 1.5 to 0.3 per plant) with increase in yield of 28.1% and net profit of Rs. 23390 and 3.85 in comparison to net profit of FP Rs. 17360 and B:C ratio 3.63. Yellow mosaic disease incidence of Blackgram significantly decreased by IT (Seed treatment with Thimethoxam 70 WP at 5 gm/kg followed by spray of dimethoate 35 EC at 750 ml/ha) by 61.5% (32.8 to 12.3%) which ultimately given 50.7% higher seed yield (4.18 to 6.3 q/ha), Rs. 14200 net profit per hectare and 4.02 cost benefit ratio. Seed treatment and soil application of T. viride decreased wilt disease incidence by 68.6% in lentil and 68.1% in chickpea which increased seed yield by 20.7 and 37.3%, respectively over farmers practice (seed treatment by carbendazim). Application of T. viride also given net return of Rs. 15230 and B:C ratio 3.37 in lentil crop and Rs. 25650 net profit and B:C ratio 4.0 cost benefit ratio in chickpea gram as compared to FP plots (Rs. 11520 net profit and B:C ratio 3.08 for lentil and Rs. 17300 net profit and 3.27 B:C ratio for gram)(Table 3).
 
 

 


 DISCUSSION

The reduction in the population of Pod borer may be due to trapping of male insects and timely spray of insecticides which ultimately resulted in the reduction in the insect incidence, increased  yield and net return. Similar findings have also been reported by Agrawal et al. (2003), Rao and Reddy (2003) and Tripathi (2014). Their results revealed the reduced incidence of pod borer in Pigeon pea by installation of pheromone trap; spray of insecticide or NPV and at pre-flowering or podding stage with increase in yield of Pigeon pea at farmer’s field.
 
Application of neem oil works as repellent for H. armigera and spray of profenophos destroys eggs and larvae thereby reducing their population. Singh et al. (2009) also reported that IPM modules (Installation of bird perches and pheromone trap, spray of insecticide at podding stage) are significantly superior over the untreated control both in term of protection (pod damage 10.86%) and production (Yield 1449 kg/ha) of gram.
 
Seed treatment with Thiamethoxam 70 WP controlled sucking pest up to 15-20 days after germination in black gram  and  spray  of  Dimethoate  35  EC  checks  further spread of white fly (insect vector of the disease) which ultimately reduces the incidence of yellow mosaic disease due to which yield of black gram increases.
 
Tomar et al. (2009) also found 117% and Raikwar et al. (2012) found 58% higher yield with improved package of practice of black gram under frontline demonstrations in comparisons to farmers practice.
 
The quality of fast multiplication and myco-parasitism of T. viridae reduces the population of fusarium spp. In gram and lentil fields which results in lower incidence of wilt. Results are in accordance with Sharma et al. (2008) and Tripathi (2014) who reported that soil application of T. viride effective in inhibiting the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp. ciceri under field condition which reduced the wilt incidence from 10.45 to 4.05. 


 CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have not declared any conflict of interest.



 REFERENCES

Agrawal SC, Singh KJ, Tripathi AK (2003). Integrated pest management in Pigeonpea. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 73(5):291-295.
 
GOI (2009). Economic survey of India. Ministry of Finance Economic Division GOI, New Delhi pp. 17-22.
 
Goyal SN, Patel BS Nizoma JR (1991). Response of Pigeonpea to Fusarium wilt and insect pest. International Pigeonpea Newsletter. 14:17-19.
 
Sharma OP, Jeswani MD, Garg DK, Lavekar RC, Singh SK (2006). Status and prospects of integrated pest management strategies in selected crops: IPM in Chickpea: Principles and approaches, CBS Publication and Distributors, New Delhi, 2:177-179.
 
Sharma, S, Agrawal A, Kumar A (2008). Biocontrol of wilt of Albizzia lebbek by using T. viride. Annals Plant Protect. Sci. 16:422-24.
 
Singh AK, Shrivastava CP, Joshi N (2009). Evaluation of integrated pest management against gram pod borer in chickpea. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 79(1):49-52.
 
Tomar RKS, Sahu BL, Singh RK, Prajapati RK (2009). Productivity enhancement of blackgram through by improved production technologies in farmer's field. J. Food Legumes 22:202-204.
 
Tripathi AK (2014). Integrated pest management in pulse crops in Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. J. Food Legumes 27(3):230-232.

 




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