International Journal of
Fisheries and Aquaculture

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Fish. Aquac.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9839
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJFA
  • Start Year: 2010

IJFA Articles in press

Effect of ginger and garlic supplemented diets on growth and feed conversion rate of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Article in Press

The present study investigated the effects of natural additives, ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum), on growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five diets containing 0% ginger and garlic (CON), 1% ginger (GN1), 1 % garlic (GR1), 2% ginger (GN2), and 2% garlic (GR2) were formulated and fed to 3600 rainbow trout (average weight: 3.52...

Author(s):Ishori Singh Mahato, Krishna Paudel, and Gun Bahadur Gurung

Formulating efficient and affordable feeds for Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) based on locally available ingredients in Benin, West Africa

Article in Press

An affordable feed for the growth of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles was developed in Benin as an alternative to high-cost imported feed. First, locally available fish feed ingredients were inventoried. Next, six feed formulas (Feed 1-Feed 6) were developed using linear algebra software and feeds were pelleted using a locally built extruder. The protein content of formulated feeds ranged from 366 to 405 g...

Author(s):Adékambi Désiré Adéyèmi, Adéchola Pierre Polycarpe Kayodé, Ifagbémi Bienvenue Chabi, Abdel-Fadel Alamou, Martinus J. Rob Nout and Anita R. Linnemann

Livelihood enhancement of tribal poor through integrated farming with fish culture in seasonal ponds-a case study of boipariguda block, koraput, Odisha

Article in Press

Integrated farming system has two components aqua model and agricultural model. The present study on the integrated aquaculture model compares the change in the production, income, nutrition and sustainability of the same in a tribal belt in Boipariguda block, Koraput district. A pre-tested interview was conducted for data collection during October 2020. A single composite family pond (.25h) was selected under the Rastriya...

Author(s):Baliarsingh B.K., Navaladi K.K., Mohanty lt. B., and Gill M. A.

Population structure and habitat preference of four anguillid eels occurring in the River Athi-Galana-Sabaki (AGS), and the River Ramisi, Kenya

Article in Press

Knowledge about the population structure of freshwater eels and their habitats is crucial for conservation and exploitation purposes, but this information is lacking for Kenyan anguillid eels, thus there was need to carry out the current study. A total of 304 eels were landed between May 2021 and June 2022, with the longer eels occurring in the River AGS compared to those of the River Ramisi, (t-test ; P

Author(s):Catherine Wanjiru Kariuki, Charles Maina Kihia, Gordon O’brien,Oscar Omondi Donde, Japhet Kadzo Tembo , Emmanuel Mbaru

Effect of processing methods on the utilization of cassava (manihot esculenta crantz) Root-Based diets on growth performance of Nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus L.

Article in Press

This study investigated the effect of processing methods of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Survival Rate and Body Composition of Nile tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) under hapa in concrete pond system. Cassava roots were processed using six different methods and finally, nutrient content was evaluated using standard methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists...

Author(s):Genanew Abate, Kassaye Balkew and Natarajan P.

The food and feeding habits of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, (Burchell, 1822)) in Lake Koka, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Providing adequate food for the rapidly increasing human population is one of the greatest challenges in the world. So, in addition to increasing food production from agriculture, it is necessary to sustainably exploit the aquatic ecosystems to ensure food security by virtue of their high productivity. Fisheries management strategies require different ecological and physiological studies of fish to apply effective...

Author(s):Tekleweyni Asayehegn, Tadesse Fetahi and Abebe Getahun

Pathogenic bacteria diversities in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and their seasonal variation among commercial fish farms in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria, Africa.

Article in Press

Due to declining natural fisheries resources globally, significant percentage now come from aquaculture. However, for sustainable demand and supply, safety and quality status must be paramount. This study investigated the pathogenic bacteria diversities in African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus), their seasonal variations and public health significance. One hundred and thirty-five samples were collected from skin, gill and...

Author(s):Olugbojo Joseph Abiodun, Akinyemi Adeolu Akanji, Obasa Samuel Olubodun, and Dare Enock Olugbenga

Trophic relationship of fish species in Ogbese River, Ado- Ekiti, South-Western, Nigeria

Article in Press

This study was conducted to determine the trophic relationship of Clarias gariepinus, Parachanna obscura and Oreochromis niloticus collected from Ogbese River , Ado Ekiti, South-Western, Nigeria between June and September, 2017. The fish specimens were examined and their stomach contents analyzed. Numerical, frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods were employed in this study. The result of the analysis showed that...

Author(s):Idowu Eunice Opeyemi, Oso James Abayomi, Agunbiade Razaq Olusola,and Efemieyah Joy Valentina

Analysis of landings and operating costs of coastal small pelagic fish in seven fishing ports of Senegal, West Africa

Article in Press

The contribution of the coastal small pelagic sector constitutes not only the main stake in food security and nutrition, but also in the livelihood, small-trade, and fight against poverty. Based on the current upward seasonal trends in catches estimated at 177,375.2 tons of small pelagic fish in 2019, this study provides information on landings and the main costs in order to understand the socio-economic sustainability of...

Author(s):Idrissa Diedhiou, Moustapha Dème, Penda Diop and Christian Larbi Ayisi

Effects of ecto- and endo-parasites on morphometric parameters and proximal composition of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Article in Press

The study was conducted to determine the effects of ecto- and endo- parasites on morphometric parameters and proximal composition of African sharptooth catfish, C.gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia. Samples of C.gariepinus were collected from the selected sites of the lake using gill nets. Collected fish were transported to the Hawassa University Biology Laboratory. A total of 240 C.gariepinus (60...

Author(s):Girmaye Mulatu and Pavanasam Natarajan

Effects of Water Treated with Bio-disc on Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings (Burchell 1822)

Article in Press

An eight weeks experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of borehole water treated with Bio-disc on water quality and the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. The fish were fed a commercial diet containing 40% crude protein twice daily in plastic aquaria tanks (50cm × 40 cm × 30 cm) fill with 20 litres of water. There were twenty-five fish (average weight of 2.40g) stocked in each aquarium. The...

Author(s):Aiyelari TA and Fasola OA

Market integration and price transmission analysis of processed fish in Ghana

Article in Press

This study investigated the price transmission and market integration of three processed fish: koobi (salted and dried tilapia - Oreochromis niloticus), kpanla (horse mackerel - Trachurus trachurus) and smoked herrings (Clupea species) from 10 fish markets in Ghana. The study used current monthly price data over five years, whilst adopting the Johansen Co-integration procedure, Granger Causality test, Asymmetric Vector...

Author(s):Edward Ebo Onumah, Victor Ntow Djarbeng and Addey Owusu Prince

Efficiency of some probiotics (bacillus subtilis and b. cereus) as anti-stress on African catfish (clarias anguillaris linnaeus 1758) fingerlings during transportation and their growth performance in post-transportation conditions

Article in Press

The study investigated the performances of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on African catfish (Clarias anguillaris) fingerlings as potential anti-stress administered at the rate of 30mgl-1. Although, there were fluctuations of the physico-chemical parameters of the water during the transportation; there was no significant difference (P?0.05) throughout. There were significant differences (P?0.05) in the survival of...

Author(s):Oscar D. Kolndadacha, Chuka Ezema and Ijiga Nathaniel

Length-Weight relationship and reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Shala, Ethiopia

Article in Press

This study assessed the Length-Weight relationship and reproductive biology of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1757) in Lake Shala, Ethiopia. A sample of 343 fish from 7.70 cm to 33 cm Total Length (TL) and from 7.80 g to 708.21 g Total Weight (TW) were collected between January and December, 2018 using a gill net. The Length-Weight relationship was curvilinear (TW = 0.0104TL3.19, R2 = 0.98. n = 343) and indicating...

Author(s):Solomon Wagaw, Seyoum Mengistou and Abebe Getahun

Cage fish culture in the Lake Victoria Region: Adoption determinants, challenges and opportunities

Article in Press

Fish cage farming was first introduced in Lake Victoria in 2005, however, its adoption and production has not met expectations. It is a promising venture that can help solve the problems of food insecurity, unemployment and alleviate poverty if a conducive investment environment is put in place. This study sought to explore the adoption determinants, challenges and opportunities of this technology within the Lake Victoria...

Author(s):Mary Orinda, Erick Okuto and Martin Abwao

Vulnerability assessment to impacts of climate variability and change in fisheries-based livelihood: the case of lake Bangweulu fishery, Samfya District in Zambia

Article in Press

The impacts of climate variability and change on natural resources-based livelihoods has increased in magnitude, frequency, and intensity; and fisheries-based livelihood is no exception. Vulnerability assessment has significant policy implications in prioritizing adaptation assistance, allocation of resources, and monitor progress over time. Hence, there is a dire need for an in-depth understanding of its vulnerability to...

Author(s):Ng’onga, Felix K. Kalaba, Jacob Mwitwa

Socioeconomic consequences of fishermen migration in Yauri Local Government Area Kebbi State

Article in Press

Studies have been conducted in the past on the causal factors of fishermen migration but what were left un-researched are the after effects of their migration on their dependants. This research focused on the rural out migration of artisanal fishermen in Yauri Local Government Area to varied destinations within and outside Nigeria. In order to achieve the stated objectives this research examined the following areas as...

Author(s):Bala Garba

Impacts of feeding restriction regimes on economic and productive performance of Nile Tilapia fish

Article in Press

The study investigated the effect of feeding restriction regimes on economic and productive performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Sixty Nile tilapia fish were randomly classified into three groups (n=10/group) with similar initial body weight. Group I (Control group) was fed three times daily for 32 days. Group II was deprived for 4 days and then re-fed for 16 days, while Group III was deprived for 8 days and...

Author(s):Ibrahim A. Elkafrawy

Aspects of reproductive indices and enteroparasitic infestation of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in a tropical reservoir

Article in Press

The study was carried out between September 2011 and August 2013, using 328 Clarias gariepinus in Oba reservoir, Oyo State, Nigeria. Standard methods were used to determine gonado-somatic index (GSI), fecundity values, and enteroparasitic infestation of the fish. Sex ratio was 1.3:1, male to female, and females on an average invested 20.54 % of its body weight in egg production while male GSI was 6.05 ± 0.19 %. Spawning...

Author(s):Olumuyiwa Olasunmibo Ajala and Olatunde O. Fawole

Comparative analysis of sinking time index and water stability of different level of inclusion of cassava flour and brewer yeast in a test diet

Article in Press

The ability of fish feed to maintain its nutritional content for considerable period of time in pond water has become an important aspect of Aquaculture. Several feed binder, mostly starch with other ingredient capable of creating air trap within the pellet of formulated feed has been used to improve the integrity of fish feed in water. The presence of the above characteristics in cassava flour and brewer yeast inform...

Author(s):Olawale Ahmed Onada and Oluniyi Solomon Ogunola

Effects of Processing Methods on Anti-Nutrient Levels of Ricinus communis L.

Article in Press

The anti-nutritional values in raw, autoclaved, boiled, fermented, soaked and toasted castor oil seeds (Ricinus communis L.) collected from Ado-Ekiti metropolis, Nigeria were evaluated. The time allotted for each of the treatments include, 20, 30 and 40 min (CSCA20, CSCA30 and CSCA40) for autoclaving; 40, 50 and 60 min (CSCB40, CSCB50 and CSCB60) for boiling; 48, 72 and 96 h (CSCF48, CSCF72 and CSCF96) for fermenting; 48,...

Author(s):Agboola, E.O and Adebayo, I. A

Growth determination of selected fish species in lake Alau, Borno State, Nigeria

Article in Press

Growth determination of selected fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Coptodon zillii, Brycinus nurse and Mormyrus rume ) was carried out in Lake Alau. The aim was to find out the growth pattern of the purposely selected fish species. A total of eighty samples of the four different fish species were purchased from the commercial fisher forks in lake Alau and were carried to the fish biology...

Author(s):Mshelia M. B., Bukar Z. L. and Garba U.

Selected metal (Fe, Cu and Zn) levels in fish and water at Abaya and Chamo Rift Valley lakes

Article in Press

Samples of fish organs and water were collected from three sampling sites of Lakes Chamo and Abaya. A procedure consuming 12 mL mixture of HNO3-H2O2 for gill, kidney, liver and 1:2.5 mL mixture of HNO3-HCl for water samples for digestion of was developed. Concentrations of three metals in water and their accumulation in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Barbus (Labeobarbus intermedius) fish species were determined...

Author(s):Dugasa Gerenfes, Endale Teju and Tesfahun Kebede

Distribution, Impacts and Management Option for water hyacinth (Eichhnornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) in Ethiopia: A review

Article in Press

Water hyacinth (Eichhprnia crassipes) is the most dangerous and worst invasive aquatic weed in the worldwide including Ethiopia, and negatively affecting millions of water resources, fisheries, transportation and social structure. Water hyacinth was introduced in the water bodies of the Rift Valley in 68years ago and currently, the weed is distributed Lake Tana, Lake Abaya, Lake Koka, Koka Dam. The wide distribution and...

Author(s):Yigrem Mengist Liyew

Suitability of citrated egg yolk Semen extender for short term preservation of the milt of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus stored in deep freezer

Article in Press

A study was conducted to test the viability of the milt of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus following extension in citrated egg yolk extender and stored in a deep freezer at -20oC. Two male brood stocks of Clarias gariepinus with average age of 14 months, average weight 1.5kg and average measurement of 41.5cm length were used. The experiment comprised of two groups via the test and control groups. The test group...

Author(s):Ubah Simon Azubuike, Nwankwo Prisca Adaoma, Obudu Christopher Ese, Ogunbodede Mofuloku Ade and Enem Simon Ikechukwu

Optimum Dietary Protein Level for Growing Nile Tilapia Fingerlings under a Fertilizer Regime in winter

Article in Press

The study aims to determine the optimum dietary protein level for growing Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) in fertilized ponds in winter, and investigate the possibility of depending entirely on natural food enhanced by fertilization as the sole source of nutrition. The experiment consisted of four treatments, each replicated in three hapas erected in an earthen pond. Each hapa was stocked with fifty...

Author(s):Magda A. A., Elnouman B. M. A., Abdalla M. Y. M. ., Elnouman B. M. A., Abdalla M. Y. M.

Biodiversity, abundance and The Type Composition of Plankton which are associated with several methods of Mariculture at Barru District Indonesia

Article in Press

Mariculture is overgrowing along with the decrease in a marine catch. It is expected to be the largest supplier of marine and fishery sectors. Improvement effort of mariculture activities will be further encouraged including efforts to optimize its other roles as conservation areas. This study is conduct in Barru waters from February 2017 to November 2018. The purpose of this study is to determine biodiversity, density,...

Author(s):Andi Adam Malik

Analysis of fisherfolks willingness to pay for improved management of water hyancith in Lake Victoria, Kenya

Article in Press

Fishing is the main economic activity among the riparian communities along the shorelines of Lake Victoria. The lake is however facing heavy threat of water hyacinth infestation which impacted negatively to the ecological and socio-economic activities in Lake Victoria. The study aimed at estimating the fisherfolks’ Willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improved management of water hyacinth and to examine socio-economic...

Author(s):John Samuel Otieno

Heavy metals concentration in Clarias gariepinus obtained from two earthened dams in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Article in Press

Heavy metals concentration in the blood and gills of Clarias gariepinus obtained from two dams (Asa and University of Ilorin), Kwara State, Nigeria was carried out to determine their level of safety for human consumption. Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in blood and gill of species from the two dams were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Blood and extracted gills...

Author(s):Abubakar M.I.

Effects of dietary supplementation of Piper guineense fruit extract on the milt quality of Clarias gariepinus broodstock

Article in Press

Clarias gariepinus is a major cultivable fish species in Nigeria. The method of it seedling propagation and quality of seed produced is therefore crucial. In the present study, the effect of dietary supplementation of aqueous extract of Piper guineense on the milt quality of male catfish, C. gariepinus broodstocks was investigated. 75 male C. gariepinus (mean weight ± 407.5 g) were fed with four diets supplemented with...

Author(s):Victoria Chidinma Ejete-Iroh

First report of Philometra sp. infestation in Yellow edged lyretail from Indian waters

Article in Press

Studies on the groupers over a two year period showed the prevalence of nematode infestation in gonads during post monsoon months. Incidences of gonad atrophy were also noted leading to isolation of the nematode and identification upto generic level. Variola louti commonly called Yellow edged lyretail is a species contributing to the hooks and line fishery was seen to be infected with Philometroid sp. Seven gonad infecting...

Author(s):Nair Rekha

Morphometric and growth performance analysis of wild and hybrid strain of Malawian Tilapia Oreochromis shiranus (Boulenger, 1897)

Article in Press

The study examined the growth performance and morphometric characteristics of a wild against a hybrid strain of Malawian Tilapia Oreochromis shiranus. The objective of the study was to compare growth rates and morphological variations between hybrid and local strain. Three strains were analysed-an F1 hybrid (O. shiranus male X Oreochromis karongae female), F1 (Local) and F1 of wild strain as a control. The fish were...

Author(s):C. Nowa

Effects on Post-harvest Infrastructure Facilities in Fisheries Sector in Tamil Nadu

Article in Press

Fisheries sector plays a significant role in the Indian and Tamil Nadu economy. The fishery sector has transferred from traditional activities into commercial enterprises. The main objectives of this paper are to examine the effects on effects on post-harvest infrastructure facilities in fisheries sector in Tamil Nadu and policy analysis in the state. In the matter of development of post-harvest infrastructure showed...

Author(s):MURUGAN K.

Comparative studies of the performance of three genera of the family Cichlidae

Article in Press

A six-month trial was conducted to study the growth performance and survival rates of three different species (Sarotherodon galilaeus, Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis niloticus), belonging to three genera (Sarotherodon, Tilapia and Oreochromis) of the family Cichlidae. Fingerlings were stocked in concrete tanks and fed with 25% crude protein feed at 5% body weight twice daily. O. niloticus attained the highest mean weight...


Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of juvenile Clarias gariepinus fed phytase-supplemented soya bean (oil-extracted) and full fat soya bean diet: comparison of phosphorus availability, digestibility and serum parameters

Article in Press

Two experiments were carried out to investigate and compare growth, phosphorus availability, digestibility and serum status in juvenile Clarias gariepinus. Two groups of five isonitrogenous and isocalorific diets containing25, 50, 75, and 100 % soya bean meal (oil-extracted) and roasted soya bean meal, respectively, were formulated and supplemented with graded levels of phytase at 0. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 FTU/g. A fish...

Author(s):B.U Akpoilih; B.O Omitoyin; E.K Ajani

A comparative analysis of the quality of Solar Tent Dried and Open Sun Dried Usipa fish (Engraulicypris sardella) Pisces; Cyprinidae

Article in Press

This study assessed the effects of solar tent drying and open sun drying on nutrient content and microbial load of Engraulicypris sardella (local name Usipa), a pelagic cyprinid endemic to Lake Malawi which supports the bulk of artisanal fishery in Malawi. Solar tent dried and open sun dried Engraulicypris sardella contained 63.77±0.12 % and 63.62±0.28 % of crude protein, 22.79± 0.20 % and 22.9± 0.24 % of fat, 6.29 ±...

Author(s):James Banda, Mangani Katundu, Essau Thunga Chisale, Victoria Ndolo, Geoffrey Zantute Kanyerere and Placid Mpeketula


Article in Press

This study investigated the growth, length-weight relationships and condition factor of fish species found in Challawa gorge dam. 10 fish species belonging to 9 families were identified. These were: Bagrus bayad macropterus, Synodontis schall, Oreochromis niloticus, Pollimyrus isidori, Marcusenius senegalensis, Schilbe uranoscopus, Clarias lazera, Lates niloticus, Brycinus nurse and Auchenoglanis occidentalis. Their...


Application of Box-Jenkins models in forecasting annual catch trend of Usipa (Engraulicypris Sardella (Gunther, 1868)) from Lake Malawi

Article in Press

Modelling is a process by which mathematical expression is used to describe a real quantitative situation in a system. The development of scientific understanding through quantitative expression of current knowledge of a system helps managers and planners to make tactical and strategic decisions. The study was designed to model catches for important cyprinid species (E. sardella) from Lake Malawi. The Box-Jenkins approach...



Article in Press

The use of duckweed chlorella combination as a protein supplement and the subsequent effects on tilapia fish fry would be a good way of reducing production costs in intensive tank tilapia culture. Thus an investigation was staged to identify the effects of duckweed and chlorella algae as feed supplements on Nile tilapia fry growth under the green water technique. Three experimental treatments were run in two replicates for...



Article in Press

The reuse of catfish effluent by irrigation can make a significant contribution to the integrated management of our water resources. The study was done to determine the suitability of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) effluent as irrigation water source. Forty (40) samples were collected from five ponds. Physical and chemical parameters of catfish effluent samples from selected earthen ponds were determined in...

Author(s):Omofunmi Olorunwa

Effects of feeding frequency on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Oreochromis shiranus juvenile (Trewavas 1983) reared in rectangular fiberglass tanks.

Article in Press

A two months feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding frequencies (2, 3 and 4 times/day) on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of Oreochromis shiranus under laboratory conditions. A total of 180 Oreochromis shiranus fingerlings of 9g were stocked in 9 experimental opaque fiberglass tanks of about 150l of water each. The completely randomized design (CRD) was used in this...


Research on the current situation, problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Aquaculture Logistics

Article in Press

This research aimed to analyze the characteristics of China's seafood logistics, the status quo of China's seafood logistics system and logistics organization pattern of China's seafood logistics, and to evaluate the efficiency of China's seafood logistics, and put forward suggestions.

Author(s):zhou Haixia

A Review of the Distribution and yield performance of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758) in different microhabitat types around Port Bunyala Bay of Lake Victoria, Kenya

Article in Press

It has been reported that Wild L. Victoria Oreochromis niloticus have disappeared from about 40% of their historical breeding ranges. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different microhabitat types on the species distribution and yield performance around Port Bunyala Bay. Physical parameters (Temperature, Total depth and Conductivity) which contributes to the dispersal and yield performance of the species...

Author(s): Omolo James

Preliminary Assessment of heavy metal concentration in selected fish feed ingredients

Article in Press

Abstract. Dearth of information exist on the heavy metal concentration (HM) of local fish feed ingredients in Nigeria, thus preliminary investigation on the concentration of lead, cadium (toxic heavy metals), copper, zinc and chromiun(essential trace metals) present in some selected feed ingredients. The two toxic metals; lead and cadium were found in fishmeal at the concentration of 0.30mg/kg each. Cd content in soybean...


Effect of Spirulina meal on Growth and Survival of freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Juvenile

Article in Press

This study was conducted to assess the potential growth promoting effect of Spirulina on Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. The experimental feed crude protein level was maintained at the level of maximum 32 %. The feed was prepared by fishmeal which was replaced with Spirulina powder at 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % level, its serve as experimental feed. Without Spirulina feed serve as a control feed. The experiment was prolonged...


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