International Journal of
Physical Sciences

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Phys. Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-1950
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPS
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2533

IJPS Articles

Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics of electrodeposited p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction

March 2013

p-ZnO thin films were grown by electrochemical deposition (ECD) technique on n-Si substrate in order to form the p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction. Hall measurement and hot probe techniques were used to determine the conductivity type of the ECD grown ZnO thin film. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the peaks corresponding to the ZnO crystal directions of (002), (101) and (200) confirmed by the Joint...

Author(s): Hatice Asil, Kübra Çinar, Emre Gür, Cevdet CoÅŸkun and Sebahattin Tüzemen

Temperature dependence of wall-plug efficiency of high power laser diodes

March 2013

Temperature dependence of wall-plug efficiency of high power laser diodes is theoretically analyzed in terms of experimentally measured parameters of the device. This issue has an influence on the available power output and on the degradation mechanism. High power laser diodes have become increasingly important as the output power of such devices continues to rise. The present calculations revealed that the decrease of...

Author(s): Muzahim I. Azawe

Traffic accident in India in relation with solar and geomagnetic activity parameters and cosmic ray intensity (1989 to 2010)

March 2013

We studied the relation between deaths due to traffic accident in India and geomagnetic activity indices: Kp, Ap, Dst and solar activity (SA) parameters, sun spot number, solar flare index (FI), coronal index (CI) and yearly average of cosmic ray intensity, observed during the period of 1989-2011. It is seen that rate of death by traffic accident are well correlated with these parameters. We have found large negative...

Author(s): P. L. Verma

A modified surface wave particle motion discrimination process

March 2013

The difference between polarization properties of surface waves and noise provides us with a simple way of discriminating the fundamental mode surface waves on three-component seismograms. In this process, vertical, radial and transverse component amplitudes at each frequency are weighted according to a theoretical three-dimensional particle motion pattern for a selected window length (WL) and moving interval (MI). For...

Author(s): Yusuf Arif Kutlu and Nilgün Sayıl

Performance evaluation of multi objective differential evolution algorithm (MDEA) strategies

March 2013

This study presents the results of comparison of the four strategies of multiobjective differential evolution algorithm (MDEA) namely, MDEA1, MDEA2, MDEA3 and MDEA4 in solving five test problems and an engineering design problem. The test problems are ZDT1, ZDT2, ZDT3, ZDT4 and ZDT6. MDEA is a multiobjective algorithm developed from differential evolution, which is an evolutionary algorithm, to solve multiobjective...

Author(s): Fred Otieno and Josiah Adeyemo  

Mechanical characterization of nickel plated copper heat spreaders with different catalytic activation surface treatment techniques

March 2013

This paper studied the effects of different catalytic activation processes towards intermetallic diffusion and mechanical properties on nickel plated heat spreader after high temperature storage (HTS). Heat spreader performs as medium to dissipate heat from silicon die towards heat-sink and is normally made by copper that is plated with nickel to improve wear resistance and prevent oxidation of copper. Two types of heat...

Author(s): Victor C. H. Lim, Nowshad Amin, Foong Chee Seng, Ibrahim Ahmad and Azman Jalar  

Utilization of paper sludge in clay bricks industry to obtain lightweight material: Evidence from partial replacement of feldspar by paper sludge

March 2013

In recent years, scientific issues related to environmental preservation have acquired great importance and the major challenge to be met is the recycling of materials discarded, causing various damages to the environment by technological development through a disposal of waste. This paper offers a possibility of recovery of waste and byproducts of paper manufacturing (paper sludge) and their use as an addition for...

Author(s): Bachir Chemani and Halima Chemani

Hydromagnetic flows of a mixture of two Newtonian fluids between two parallel plates

March 2013

The paper aims to study the flow of a binary mixture of electrically conducting, incompressible and viscous fluids between two parallel plates in the presence of a transverse uniform magnetic field. The solution of such a flow model has many applications in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators, MHD pumps, MHD accelerators, and MHD flowmeters. Exact solutions have been obtained for the following four problems: (1)...

Author(s): S. Barış and M. Åž. Demir  

Modification of some Albanian wood properties through chemical treatment

March 2013

A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of acetylation on physical properties and gluing ability of some Albanian woods. Three woods were studied: beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), poplar (Populus alba L.) and fir (Abies alba Mill.). For acetylation, pyridine and acetic anhydride were used. After treatment, all the samples were conditioned to 100% relative humidity of air and were measured...

Author(s): Ajdinaj D., Lato E., Quku D. and Cota H.

The impact of plasma interference profile (PIP) on argon discharge in plasma focus device

February 2013

Radiation emission in a low energy (2.2 kJ, 12 kV) UM plasma focus is studied. The system is operated in Argon filling gas. Enrichment of the radiation emission yield is obtained with an optimized pressure 1.7 mbar. Time resolved radiation emission measurements are made by using an array of PIN diode detectors covered with few Al foil thicknesses, to be found at top arrangement at distance 43.50 cm from the...

Author(s): Muhammad Zubair Khan, Yap Seong Ling and Wong Chiow San  

Improvement of electromagnetic wave (EMW) shielding through inclusion of electrolytic manganese dioxide in cement and tile-based composites with application for indoor wireless communication systems

February 2013

The electromagnetic wave absorption characteristics of composite cement-based building material have attracted much interest in recent times. Researchers have mainly focused on the 2 GHz to 12 GHz frequency range while the authors have investigated the mobile and WiFi frequency bands. The determination of characteristics such as reflection loss, absorption, attenuation and shielding effectiveness are crucial in the...

Author(s): Johann Christiaan Pretorius and B. T. Maharaj

Effects of growth rate on the physical and mechanical properties of Sn-3.7Ag-0.9Zn eutectic alloy

February 2013

Sn-3.7wt.%Ag-0.9wt.%Zn alloy was directionally solidified upward under different conditions, with different growth rates (V = 3.38 - 220.12 µm/s) at a constant temperature gradient (G = 4.33 K/mm) and with different temperature gradients (G = 4.33 -12.41 K/mm) at a constant growth rate (V = 11.52 µm/s) by using a Bridgman-type directional solidification furnace. The microstructure was observed to be a rod...

Author(s): U. Böyük, S. Engin, H. Kaya, N. MaraÅŸli, E. Çadirli and M. Åžahin

Gamma-ray shielding of concretes including magnetite in different rate

February 2013

The effect of magnetite ore rate on the gamma radiation shielding properties of concrete samples have been measured by using the transmission method for 59.54 and 80.99 keV gamma rays with a NaI(Tl) detector. Linear attenuation coefficients of concrete samples including magnetite in different rates were obtained by Lambert law in which measured gamma ray intensities were used. They were compared with theoretical values...

Author(s): B. Oto and A. Gür

Determination of the crust-mantle electrical conductivity-depth structure of Niger Delta using solar quiet day (Sq) current

February 2013

Innovative attempt has been made to study the crust-mantle electrical conductivity-depth structure of the Niger Delta region in Nigeria by applying solar quiet (Sq) day current. The study involved the use of geomagnetic data obtained from Lagos by magnetic data set (MAGDAS), Japan in 2010. Gauss spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) technique was employed which separated the internal and external field contributions to Sq...

Author(s): Obiora D. N., Okeke F. N. and Yumoto K.

Aftershock sequence analysis of 19 May, 2009 earthquake of Lunayyir lava flow, northwest Saudi Arabia

February 2013

Aftershock sequence of 19th May, 2009 Lunayyir earthquake (Mw 5.7) has been recorded by deploying seismic stations immediately after the occurrence of the main shock. Analysis of this sequence clarified that; the major part of cumulative seismic moment released during the first hours after the occurrence of the main shock; their orientation is north west (NW) parallel to the Red Sea axial trend along Najd faulting...

Author(s): Al-Zahrani H., Al-Amri A. M., , Abdel-Rahman K.,  and Fnais M.  

Effect of geometric parameters on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

February 2013

The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout and clamped boundary conditions. Three dimensional finite element models (FEMs) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations...

Author(s): V. Bala Krishna Murthy, K. Srividya, M. R. S. Satyanarayana and G. Sambasiva Rao

Transient mass transfer flow past an impulsively started infinite vertical plate with ramped plate velocity and ramped temperature

February 2013

An exact solution to the problem of a transient free convective mass transfer flow of a Newtonian non-Grey optically thin fluid past a suddenly started infinite vertical plate embedded in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature as well as ramped plate velocity in presence of appreciable thermal radiation and first-order chemical reaction is presented. The resulting system of equations governing the flow is solved...

Author(s): N. Ahmed and M. Dutta

Heavy metal removal by ambient-temperature argon plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with surface acrylic acid grafting

February 2013

This study utilized the capability of ambient-temperature plasma in modifying the surface properties of materials to activate the nonwoven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber surfaces. The effects of different plasma treatment parameters (such as plasma power, treatment time) and grafting parameters (such as grafting temperature, acrylic acid monomer concentration, grafting time) on the activation and grafting of the...

Author(s): Juu-En Chang, Yi-Kuo Chang, Min-Her Leu, Ying-Liang Chen and Jing-Hong Huang  

Interface energy of solid cadmium (Cd) phase in the Cd-Pb (Cadmium-Lead) binary alloy

February 2013

The grain boundary groove shapes for the Cadmium (Cd) phase in equilibrium with the Lead (Pb)-Cd eutectic liquid were obtained with radial heat flow apparatus. From the obtained grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient, solid-liquid and grain boundary energy for the Cd phase in equilibrium with the Pb-Cd eutectic liquid were determined to be (8.35 ± 0.41) x 10-8 Km, (128.00 ± 12.8)...

Author(s): Fatma Meydaneri, Buket Saatçi and Ahmet Ülgen

A novel technique for solving Cauchy problem for the third-order linear dispersive partial differential equation

February 2013

To solve Cauchy problem for the third-order linear dispersive partial differential equation, the reduced differential transform (RDT) method is used. Without using any discretization or perturbation the technique gives analytical approximation in the form of rapidly convergent sequence with well-structured terms that can usually be expressed in a compact form. The efficiency and reliability of the method is demonstrated...

Author(s): Tahir Naseem and Muhammad Tahir

Performance analysis of ultra wideband media access control protocol providing two class traffic

February 2013

Ultra wideband (UWB) technology based primarily on the impulse radio paradigm has a huge potential for revolutionizing the world of digital communications especially wireless communications. Multiple packets can be assembled into a single frame at the medium access control (MAC) layer, which can significantly improve the throughput performance. This paper presents a detailed performance analysis for UWB multi-band MAC...

Author(s): Mohamed E. Wahed, Mohamed K. Hussein, Mohamed H. Mousa and Mohamed Abdel Hameed

Optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation by the structural adjacency matrix

February 2013

In this paper, we consider the optimal sensors placement problem for faults detection and isolation. When the detection and isolation of faults of an existing system’s sensors is impossible or uncertain, a reconfiguration sensor placement of this system should be reconsidered. The propagation of faults (Observability/Detectability) was studied in a structured linear system on a directed graph (digraph). An...

Author(s): ALEM Saïd and BENAZZOUZ Djamel  

Econometric modeling and projection of production, import and export of particle board industry in Turkey

February 2013

Although wood is one of the oldest materials used by humans, the production of wood-based panel products has a very short history. The production of panel products constitutes one of the most important developments in forest products industry. In this study, models are established and projections are developed for production, import and export of Turkish Particle board industry by econometric method. As a result of...

Author(s): Yildiz Cabuk, Selman Karayilmazlar, S. Murat Onat and Rifat Kurt

The effects of cow dung inoculum and palm head ash-solution treatment on biogas yield of bagasse

February 2013

Blends of ash solution and water-soaked bagasse with cow dung inoculum were studied for biogas production. Two sets of five biodigesters each of 50 kg capacity were used. The blends were respectively charged into the 50 kg metal prototype biodigesters in the ratio of 3:1 (water:waste). Proximate analyses as well as total solids, volatile solids, carbon content, and calorific value were conducted on the wastes while...

Author(s): Ofomatah A. C. and Okoye C. O. B.

Comparative study of four methods for estimating Weibull parameters for Halabja, Iraq

February 2013

The Weibull distribution is the standard function used by the wind energy community to model the wind speed frequency distribution. In this study, four methods are presented for estimating Weibull parameters (Shape and Scale), namely, Maximum likelihood method (MLM), Rank regression method (RRM), Mean-standard deviation method (MSD), and Power density method (PDM). To compare the methods, a period of 4 years (2001 -...

Author(s): Salahaddin A. Ahmed

Derivation of the spatially flat Friedmann equation from Bohm-De Broglie interpretation in canonical quantum cosmology

February 2013

Friedmann equations play a central role in cosmology for describing the evolution of the universe. Initially, the Friedmann equations were derived by Alexander Friedmann in 1922. He derived the equations from Einstein’s field equations for a universe which is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. The equations were again derived from Newtonian mechanics by Milne. However in this paper, we derive the spatially flat...

Author(s): Ch’ng Han Siong and Shahidan Radiman

A comment on “Robust linear optimization under new distance measure”

February 2013

Zhang et al. (2012) proposed a new robust counterpart for linear optimization, and shown the effectiveness of the new model by numerical results of AFIRO and ADLITTLE. In this comment, it is shown that the numerical results in their paper are not true, conversely, the model of Bertimas and Sim (2004) has better optimality than that of Zhang et al. (2012) if the same probability bounds that the -th constraint...

Author(s): Yu Wuyang

Comparison of the performance of analog and digital hadronic sampling calorimeters

January 2013

By using the tungsten as passive element and the Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (GRPCs) as active element, the gaseous hadronic calorimeter is studied as a possible detector for the future International Linear Collider (ILC). The results of the numerical study, using the GEANT4 simulation package, of the performance of this calorimeter when it is exposed to a negative pion beam in an energy range from 5 GeV to 100 GeV...

Author(s): Y. Elmahroug, B. Tellili, and S. Chedly

Heavy metals in street soil dusts of industrial market in Enugu, South East, Nigeria

January 2013

Analysis of some heavy metals present in soil dusts of Industrial Market in Enugu, South East Nigeria was carried out. Soil dust samples were collected from five different sections in the market and a control sample was collected 500 m away from the market. The samples were analyzed after aqua regia digestion with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for Lead, Iron, Nickel, Copper and Cadmium. The result showed a...

Author(s): Nwachukwu R. Ekere and Okiri P. Ukoha

Probing of dielectric properties of high density poly-ethylene/calcium carbonate (HDPE/CaCO3) nano-micro composite

January 2013

In this experimental investigation, high density poly-ethylene/calcium carbonate (HDPE-CaCO3) micro/nano composite sheets were prepared by melt blending the master batch using twin screw extruder followed by injection molding. The dispersion characteristics were determined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and were found to be reasonably uniform. These sheets were then subjected to electrical...

Author(s): M. A. Al-Eshaikh and M. Iqbal Qureshi

Adjust of energy with compactly supported orthogonal wavelet for steganographic algorithms using the scaling function

January 2013

When RGB images are processed for the implementation of steganographic algorithms, it is important to study the quality of the cover and retrieved images, since it typically used digital filters, reaching visibly deformed images. The discrete wavelet transform is useful for adjusting the stego- image quality, because one of their principal qualities which are able to analyze different frequency levels (multi-resolution...

Author(s): Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez, Francisco J. Gallegos-Funes, Alberto J. Rosales-Silva and José L. López-Bonilla

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids

January 2013

Mass attenuation coefficient (), effective atomic number () and effective electron density () were determined experimentally and theoretically for some amino acids (Glycine, L-Alanine, D-Alanine, Proline, L-Leucine and D-Leucine) at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon...

Author(s): TurÅŸucu A, Önder P, Demir D and Öznülüer T

Experimental study of the elastic multiple scattering by a two-dimensional (2D) periodic array in the case of empty cavities

January 2013

In this work, we study the propagation of the plane waves in a solid medium (Aluminium) which contains a periodic two-dimensional (2D) array of cylindrical inclusions using a multiple scattering theory. The aim of this study is to validate the experience of certain theoretical predictions such as the frequential positions of the stop-bands and their widths like their evolution according to the geometrical...

Author(s): Ahmed Moumena and Abderezzak Guessoum  

The modified (G'/G)-expansion method for the (1+1) Hirota-Ramani and (2+1) breaking soliton equation

January 2013

In this article, we apply the modified (G'/G)-expansion method to construct hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational function solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. This method can be thought of as the generalization of the (G'/G)-expansion method given recently by Wang et al. (2008). To illustrate the validity and advantages of this method, the (1+1)-dimensional Hirota-Ramani equation and the...

Author(s): Elsayed M. E. Zayed and A. H. Arnous

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of clay minerals from rocks of Lalibela churches, Ethiopia

January 2013

This study demonstrates the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy andscanning electron microscope - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) techniques which has been applied to characterize decay products and processes occurring at the surface of rock-hewn churches at the UNESCO’s World Heritage site of Lalibela, Northern Ethiopia. Spectroscopic analyses comparing the observed...

Author(s): Alemayehu Kiros, A. V. Gholap and Giovanni E. Gigante  

Measurement of Kβ/Kα x-ray intensity ratios and K to L shell total vacancy transfer probabilities for elements in the range 40 ≤ Z ≤ 50

January 2013

The K shell x-ray intensity ratios Kβ/Kα for 9 elements in the atomic range 40 ≤ Z ≤ 50 have been determined for an excitation energy of 59.537 keV. The K-L total vacancy transfer probabilities (ηKL) for these elements have been determined, also. K x-rays emitted by samples were detected using a high resolution Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The measured...

Author(s): A. TurÅŸucu, P. Önder and D. Demir

Simultaneous ultraviolet-visible (UV–VIS) spectrophotometric quantitative determination of Pb, Hg, Cd, As and Ni ions in aqueous solutions using cyanidin as a chromogenic reagent

January 2013

The use of cyanidin (3, 31 41 5, 7 – pentahydroxyflavylium chloride) extracted from a tropical plant Hibiscus sabradiffa L. as a chelating reagent for simultaneous spectrophotometric determinations of ions of Pb, Hg, Cd, As and Ni in mixed aqueous solution is reported. The purified extract of the dried calyces of the Roselle plant was characterized and the results compared with literature...

Author(s): C. O. B. Okoye, A. M. Chukwuneke, N. R. Ekere and J. N. Ihedioha

Application of Cyanex® extractant in Cobalt/Nickel separation process by solvent extraction

January 2013

This study presents a detailed review on the advanced hydrometallurgical treatment involving the extraction and separation of Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni) by Cyanex® extractants. The structures, properties and applications of various Cyanex® extractants such as Cyanex®272, Cyanex®301, Cyanex®921, Cyanex®923 and Cyanex®421X were discussed and compared. Cyanex®272 thus proved to be the most...

Author(s): Olushola S. Ayanda, Folahan A. Adekola, Alafara A. Baba, Bhekumusa J. Ximbaand Olalekan S. Fatoki

Digital in-line holography for blood cell

January 2013

This paper investigates the application of Fresnel based numerical algorithms for the reconstruction of Gabor in-line holograms. A simple in-line digital holographic system was used to record blood cell. The Fresnel transformation (FS) method was used for reconstruction of the hologram. High contrast blood cell images were used to demonstrate numerical reconstruction process by Matlab. Sine, cosin, and amplitude...

Author(s): Adnan Salih and Khawla J. Tahir

On the behavior of the solutions of the system of rational difference equations

January 2013

There has been a great interest in studying difference equations and systems. One of the reasons for this is a necessity for some techniques which can be used in investigating equations arising in mathematical models describing real life situations in population biology, geometry, economics, probability theory, genetics, physics etc. In this paper, we investigate the solutions of the system of rational difference...

Author(s): Abdullah Selcuk Kurbanli, Ibrahim Yalcinkaya and Ali Gelisken

Double soliton solutions for some nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics

January 2013

In this article, the extended coupled sub-equations expansion method was used to construct a series of double soliton-like solutions, double triangular function solitons and complexiton solitons for some nonlinear partial differential equations (NLPDEs) via the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equations and the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov equations. With the help of symbolic computation as...

Author(s): Khaled A. Gepreel, Taher A. Nofal, and Ali A. Al-Thobaiti

Mechanical properties of Rowan wood impregnated with various chemical materials

January 2013

The aim of this research was to determine some of the mechanical properties of Rowan wood impregnated with various impregnation materials. For this purpose, the test samples were prepared from Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia Lipsky) wood materials that are of common use in the forest products industry of Turkey according to TS 345. The test samples were treated with Tanalith-E, Vacsol Azure, Imersol-Aqua, and Boron...

Author(s): Hakan Keskin, Neslihan Süzer Ertürk, Mustafa Hilmi ÇolakoÄŸlu and Süleyman Korkut

Twenty-five years of wind data in south-eastern locations of Nigeria: Modeling and prediction of wind potential

January 2013

Weibull distribution is often invoked to interpret and predict wind characteristics needed for effective design of wind power systems for different locations. In this paper, daily average wind data for Enugu (6.4°N; 7.5°E), Onitsha (6.8°N; 6.1°E) and Owerri (5.5°N; 7.0°E) over a 25-year period is modeled in terms of the Weibull distribution in order to accurately predict wind potentials for the...

Author(s): F. C. Odo, D. O. Ugbor and P. E. Ugwuoke

Removal of 2-Nitrophenol by Linde Type A (LTA) zeolites

January 2013

The adsorption of 2-nitrophenol on zeolites 3A (KA) and 5A (CaA), the general name of which is Linde Type A (LTA), have been investigated by using fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Nitrophenols can be regarded as both occupational and environmental pollutants. In this work, LTA zeolites which are commercially suitable media for environmental pollutants are...

Author(s): T. Kalaycı, B. Bardakçı and N. K. Kınaytürk

Timelike tubes with Darboux frame in Minkowski 3-space

January 2013

In this study, we define a timelike tube around a spacelike curve with timelike binormal by taking Darboux frame instead of Frenet frame in Minkowski 3-space  QUOTE  . Subsequently, we compute the Gaussian curvature, the mean curvature, and the second Gaussian curvature of timelike tube with Darboux frame and obtained some characterizations for special curves on this timelike tube around a spacelike...

Author(s): Sezai Kızıltuğ and Yusuf Yaylı

Evaluation of groundwater potential and aquifer protective capacity assessment at Tutugbua-Olugboyega area, off Ondo road, Akure Southwestern Nigeria

January 2013

A total of thirty-two (32) vertical electrical sounding (VES) data were acquired using R 50 d.c. Resistivity meter within the Precambrian basement geology of part of Akure metropolis southwestern Nigeria.  The VES data were interpreted; eight type curves were identified, from the geoelectric section the subsurface was characterized into four lithologies namely topsoil, weathered layer (clay /lateritic clay),...

Author(s): M. A. Ayuk, A. O. Adelusi and K. A. N. Adiat

Structural, mechanical, optical and second harmonic generation (SHG) studies of gamma glycine single crystal

January 2013

Single crystals of γ-glycine were grown by submerged seed solution method, hanging seed solution growth method and solvent evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to confirm the crystalline gamma phase and to find out the lattice parameters of the grown crystals. The presence of various functional groups was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis....

Author(s): S. Anbuchudar Azhagan and S. Ganesan

Synthesis and crystal structure of (Nitrato-O, O')-bis(triphenylphosphine)-silver(I) toluene mono-solvate

January 2013

The reaction of Ag(I) nitrate with triphenylphosphine in methanol in 1:1 molar ratios and recrystallization in toluene resulted in complex of the formula [Ag(PPh3)2NO3]∙C7H8. The compound is a mononuclear neutral complex in which the Ag atom is in a tetrahedral environment consisting of two triphenylphosphine ligands and a nitrate ion acting as a bidentate ligand. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic P`1 space...

Author(s): Peter A. Ajibade

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on poly(3-hexylthioacetate thiophene)

January 2013

This work details the synthesis of a functionalized all-donor polymer, poly(3-hexylthioacetate thiophene) (P3HTT). The spectrophotometry analysis of the polymer showed absorption bands at 450 and 536 nm in the liquid and solid states, respectively with optical band gap ( QUOTE  ) of 1.9 eV. In addition, the polymer emits in the green region of the emission spectrum with photoluminescence (PL)...

Author(s): Athanasius J. Manji and Patrick J. Murphy

Introducing mole fraction in the density calculations of liquid-liquid solutions

January 2013

The densities of an ideal and a non-ideal liquid-liquid solution were determined experimentally. The experimental results were then compared to calculated values using two mathematical expressions for density, employing partial densities in one and mole fraction in the other. Results were presented in form of tables and graphs, indicating the validity of applying mole fractions in the estimation of liquid-liquid...

Author(s): Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia. Department of Chemistry, Girls College, Hail University, Hail, Saudi Arabi.

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