Journal of
Geology and Mining Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Geol. Min. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9766
  • DOI: 10.5897/JGMR
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 176

JGMR Articles

Geoelectric investigation of Owuruwuru Dam site, Ikere Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

December 2011

  Geophysical investigation involving the electrical resistivity method has been undertaken along three proposed dam axes trending NNW-SSE (335° WCB) across ENE to WSW flowing Owuruwuru River at Ikere Ekiti Southwestern Nigeria. The study is aimed at evaluating the feasibility of the area for establishing a small earth dam and reservoir. The electrical resistivity method involving the Wenner and...

Author(s): Oluwakemi Olanike Adeoye-Oladapo and Michael Ilesanmi Oladapo

Groundwater system evaluation and protective capacity of overburden material at Ile-olujI, Southwestern Nigeria

November 2011

  Forty (40) Schlumberger depth soundings and inventory of fifty-five (55) hand-dug wells were carried out in Ile-Oluji area, South-western Nigeria, aimed at assessing the groundwater prospect and aquifer vulnerability. The area is characterized by the crystalline basement rocks, mostly of granite gneiss lithology. Major challenges in this area are inadequate municipal water supply coupled with the...

Author(s): K. A. Mogaji, G. O. Omosuyi and G. M. Olayanju

Influence of various factors on the fluctuation of groundwater level in hard rock terrain and its importance in the assessment of groundwater

November 2011

  A vast terrain, nearly 65% of the total area of India is occupied by hard rocks, more predominantly in the area of peninsular shield covering southern part of India. The peninsular shield is mostly constituted of granites, gneisses, basaltic rocks of volcanic origin and metamorphic complexes. In basaltic rock, the main aquifer horizons are in vesicular, fractured and weathered zone. These basaltic rocks are...

Author(s): Bhagyashri C. Maggirwar and Bhavana N. Umrikar 

Determination of aquifer potentials of Abia State University, Uturu (ABSU) and its environs using vertical electrical sounding (VES)

October 2011

  Resistivity soundings have been carried out around the Abia State University, Uturu (ABSU) and its environs, using the Schlumberger configuration. The major aim is to delineate potential aquifer zones for regional groundwater harvesting and further development. The geologic formations in the study area consist of a sequence of underlying Lower Coal Measures (Mamu), the Ajali formation and the upper coal...

Author(s): M. U. Igboekwe and Akpan, C. B.

Diagenesis and reservoir quality of cretaceous sandstones of Nkporo formation (Campanian) southeastern Benue trough, Nigeria

October 2011

  The Afikpo Basin of southeastern Benue trough represents an elongate NE-SW oriented depocenter located north-west of the Oban Massif. During Campanian-Maastrichtain times, two parallel facies belts of basal sandstones of the Nkporo formation were developed in a wide range of alluvial fan complex, tidal channel and deltaic environments. Detailed petrological study of the unit by thin section, scanning electron...

Author(s): Minapuye I. Odigi

Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of weathering products of amphibolites at SW Eséka (Northern border of the Nyong unit, SW Cameroon)

October 2011

  The study site is located in the SW of Eséka, NE of the Nyong unit. The aim of this study is the characterization of the laterites developed on amphibolites which are greenish, compact and with small discontinuous whitish quartz veins. They also possess a minor foliation. The weathering of amphibolites leads to a large lateritic cover. These laterites are essentially made up by kaolinite, goethite,...

Author(s): Elie Constantin Bayiga, Dieudonné Bitom, Paul-Désiré Ndjigui and Paul Bilong

Assessment of groundwater quality index for Jimeta-Yola area, Northeastern Nigeria

September 2011

  The objective of this work is to provide information on the physical and chemical properties of groundwater in Jimeta-Yola area in order to appreciate the impacts of indiscriminate waste disposal practice on the quality of groundwater and to discuss its suitability for human consumption from the water quality index values. This has been determined by collecting groundwater samples from hand-dug wells and...

Author(s): J. M. Ishaku

Al-compositional variation in ophiolitic chromitites from the south Eastern Desert of Egypt: Petrogenetic implications

September 2011

  Podiform chromitite bodies of variable sizes are hosted in the serpentinized ophiolitic dunite-harzburgite of the Arabian Nubian Shield in Arais (AR) and Malo Grim (MG) areas in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt. The composition of chromian spinel in most of the studied chromitite samples has not changed significantly from its magmatic composition. However, the fractured and disseminated-textured ores were...

Author(s): Mohamed M. Hamdy and El-Metwally M. Lebda

Engineering geophysical investigation of a flood zone: A case study of Alaba Layout, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

August 2011

  Geotechnical and geophysical investigation involving electrical resistivity survey and laboratory test of soil samples were carried out at Alaba Layout, close to the Federal University of Technology, Akure temporary site. Sixteen vertical electrical soundings were conducted within the study area and laboratory tests conducted on soil samples obtained at three different locations in the area. Three major...

Author(s): Olayanju G. M.

Geoelectrical mapping of the groundwater regime around the Federal Polytechnic Ado-Ekiti, South Western Nigeria

August 2011

  This paper presents the use of electrical resistivity survey technique in mapping the bedrock relief, and detection of the near surface groundwater regime around the new administrative block of the Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State. Twelve vertical electrical soundings using the Schlumberger configuration were acquired. Also, groundwater samples were obtained at selected locations and subjected to...

Author(s): Olayanju G. M., Ayuk M. A. and Adelusi A. O.

Pollution effect of pit latrines on shallow wells at Isale-Igbehin community, Abeokuta, Nigeria

August 2011

  The study examined the pollution effect of pit latrine on shallow wells at Isale-Igbehin community, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The study was carried out in September, 2007. Both the bacteriological and physiochemical components of the water were analyzed. These include the total coliform count, fecal coliform, taste, odour, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, conductivity, total hardness, total...

Author(s): Adejuwon, Joseph O. and Adeniyi, David O.

Subsoil investigation using integrated methods at Lagos, Nigeria

July 2011

  The application of geophysical and geotechnical methods in subsoil investigation at Magodo phase II Lagos, Nigeria has revealed the presence of five subsurface geo-electric layers. This consists of topsoil, sandy clay, sand, clay and sand. The sand ranges in thickness from 14.33 to 37.3 m while the depth to the sand body varies from 3.35 to over 70 m. The clay layer ranges in depth from 22.4 to 43.89 m while...

Author(s): Oyedele, K. F. and Okoh, C.

Rainfall characteristics, runoff rate and traffic flow on gully morphometric parameter growth and soil loss in sand-mined peri-urban, Uyo, Nigeria

July 2011

  The number of rain days, rainfall amount, intensity and erosivity, runoff rates and traffic count influenced soil losses or degradation of gully morphometric parameters of length, width and depth, and semi-circular ratio (SCR) and contributed significantly (p<0.01) to gully initiation and growth in sand-mined peri-urban. 42 gullies in 42.80 m2 were studied, indicating that gully initiation and...

Author(s): O. E. ESSIEN and E. G. OKON

A logistic regression analysis of the occurrence of mine accidents in the Burgersfort area in South Africa

July 2011

  In this paper a logistic regression model is developed and used to predict the probability of accidents occurring in mines and to estimate the occurrence of accidents due to machines and falling rocks. We designed a questionnaire and conducted interviews among workers in the mines of Burgersfort area in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. A total of 372 people responded of which 29% were accident victims....

Author(s): S. J. Riba, M. Lesaoana, C. Sigauke and M. R. Makwela

Preliminary assessment of water quality in Ayede-Ekiti, Southwestern Nigeria

June 2011

  Problems of water borne diseases are expected where water quality to a community has been compromised. This was the case of Ayede Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria where cholera epidemic was reported recently. Hydrochemical investigation of twenty-seven groundwater and 3 surface water samples from the town were thus, carried out. This was aimed at evaluating major ions and their origin; establish hydro-chemical...

Author(s): Ige O. O. and Olasehinde P. I.

The economics of water supply management in Obantoko area, Abeokuta, Nigeria

June 2011

  This paper examined the management of water supply in Obantoko area -a typical Nigerian settlement. The population of the area was determined using building count method and a satellite imagery while reports of geophysical surveys of the area done in previous works gave the indication of field of prospective boreholes in the area. These were used to determine the costs and locations of prospective boreholes...

Author(s): Ufoegbune, G. C., Orimoloye, A. O., Eruola, A. O. and Ogunyemi, I. O.

Biological and physiochemical properties of shallow wells in Ikorodu town, Lagos Nigeria

June 2011

  This study examined the biological, physical and chemical quality of shallow wells in Ikorodu, Lagos state. Purposive random sampling method was employed for the collection of samples during the wet season in September, 2010 from Majidun, Ogolonto and Agric communities. A total of 24 samples, with 8 from each community, were collected and analyzed for taste, odour, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved...

Author(s): Adejuwon Joseph O. and Mbuk Chritopher J.

An integrated approach to sustainable groundwater development and management in Nigeria

May 2011

  Nigeria has greater challenges when it comes to groundwater development and management. The management of the resource is lagging behind the pace of development, and often, very little control is exercised in its exploitation. The current groundwater resources development and supply status is unacceptably low and needs a major transformation. With the rapid growth in population, urbanization,...

Author(s): H. O. Nwankwoala

Effects of gas flaring on surface and ground waters in Delta State, Nigeria

May 2011

  Surface and groundwater samples from gas flared region of Warri and a neighboring town, Abraka, where minimal gas flaring activity takes place were analyzed for their major, minor and trace element constituents and some physical characteristics. The results were evaluated with a view to determine and compare the quality and potability of the water from areas of high gas flaring activity with samples...

Author(s): Nwankwo C. N. and Ogagarue D. O.

Geochemical modelling of uranium speciation in the subsurface aquatic environment of Punjab State in India

May 2011

  Geochemical models like MEDUSA (make equilibrium diagrams using sophisticated algorithms) and the PRHEEQC versions 2 have been used to assess the uranium speciation under the influence of redox conditions and complexant concentration in ground water. For this study, the groundwater samples (bore well and hand pump) were analysed for different geochemical parameters including uranium. Using a...

Author(s): Ajay Kumar, Sabyasachi Rout, Ushers Narayanan, Manish K. Mishra, R. M.Tripathi, Jaspal Singh, Sanjeev Kumar and H. S. Kushwaha

Small scale mining and heavy metals pollution of agricultural soils: The case of Ishiagu Mining District, South Eastern Nigeria

April 2011

  This research assesses the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Co and Ni in soils in Ishiagu. Mining has become prominent in this area because of existence of Pb – Zn lodes, veins and veinlets. It has thus become necessary to assess these because these metals are associated with Pb-Zn mineralization and are also significant in environmental health consideration, since they constitute priority pollutants....

Author(s): Ezeh, H. N and Chukwu E.

Evaluation of empirical formulae for the determination of hydraulic conductivity based on grain-size analysis

April 2011

  Several empirical formulae were used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer materials in the Jimeta-Yola area. The results indicate that the best estimation of hydraulic conductivity is based on Terzaghi equation, followed by Kozeny-Carman, Hazen, Breyer and Slitcher equations, respectively. The mean values from these equations were 1508, 287.1, 213.3, 186.9 and 102.3 m/day. The estimated...

Author(s): J. M. Ishaku, E.W. Gadzama and U. Kaigama

Dimension stone: Exploration, evaluation and exploitation in southwest parts of Oban Massif Southeastern Nigeria

April 2011

  Some igneous and metamorphic rocks in Oban Massif can meet requirements for the production of dimension stone. The thickness of lateritic deposits is thin in places, though the area is within the equatorial rain forest region subjected to extensive weathering. Pegmatitic granite and kyanite gneiss have been identified as of good quality in physical, chemical and mechanical properties to be a resource....

Author(s): N. Egesi and C. A. Tse 

Evaluation of hydrojacking and hydrofracturing behavior in Aghajari formation (Gotvand dam site foundation), Iran

March 2011

  Regarding the construction of large dams, definition of hydraulically and hydro mechanical conditions of rock mass is necessary. This paper summarizes the results and evaluation of hydraulic jacking and hydraulic fracturing tests conducted in Aghajari formation in different depths. Lugeon testing was carried out in selected boreholes in order to study the groundwater characteristics of the Aghajari formation....

Author(s): Ajalloeian R., Fatehi L. and Ganjalipour K.

Geoelectric investigation of the groundwater potential of Moniya Area, Ibadan

March 2011

  Geoelectric measurements using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method were carried out in Moniya, Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria, using the ABEM terrameter SAS 300B . The objectives of the study were to investigate the aquifer characteristics and groundwater potential of the subsurface formations. Seventeen profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger array configuration. The data...

Author(s): Emmanuel O. Joshua, Olayinka O. Odeyemi and Oladotun O. Fawehinmi

Petrographic analysis for naming and classifying an igneous intrusive rock in the Lower Benue Trough

March 2011

  Absence of specific name and classification of the Isiagu intrusive rock and definition of its petrographic province became a challenge. To this effect, we collected rock samples at various depths from a deep quarry pit at Ishiagu and subjected the samples to both physical and optical analysis. This analysis was further tied to the basic principles of magma fractionation and crystallization. Physical analysis...

Author(s): Michael A. Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka Chinaka and Maureen I. Nwachukwu

Investigation into the weathering layer using up-hole method of seismic refraction

March 2011

  This paper is aimed at using up-hole method of seismic refraction survey to investigate the thickness of the weathering layer as well as the velocity of seismic waves through the layer. The first events to arrive at the geophones on a refraction profile had travelled by refraction along the top of the high speed zone just below the weathering layer. Using the time- offset curves of the first arrivals for...

Author(s): M. U. Igboekwe and H. E. Ohaegbuchu

Groundwater flow direction in Ndokwa-East local government area of Delta state, Nigeria

February 2011

  The Global Positioning System (G.P.S) was used to measure the longitudes, latitudes and elevations above mean sea level at 11 locations evenly spread within Ndokwa-East Local Government Area of Delta State. The water table contour map of the study area revealed that groundwater flow direction is moderately toward the south (Aboh) and extensively towards the North-Western parts of the Region (Beneku and...

Author(s): Oseji Julius Otutu

Structural and stratigraphic mapping of Emi field, offshore Niger Delta

February 2011

  The Niger Delta, where oil and gas are predominantly trapped in sandstones and unconsolidated sands in the Agbada formation, ranked among the world’s major hydrocarbon provinces. The traps, structure and stratigraphic, could be very subtle and complex and are therefore, difficult to map accurately. The degree of reliability and precision of the mapping can be greatly enhanced by integrating seismic data...

Author(s): A. P. Aizebeokhai and I. Olayinka

Geoelectric investigation of the effect of heavy clay deposits on aquifer potential in Okpara waterside Delta State, Nigeria

February 2011

  Groundwater is a valuable natural resource that is of immense importance to life. It is naturally stored in the pore spaces within soil compartments and between unconsolidated formations. Its availability and characteristics are greatly determined by the properties of the immediate geologic formations, landfills, toxic wastes and running surface waters etc. Surface geologic presentation of formations in...

Author(s): Okolie, Emmanuel Chukwuemeka

Fuzzy c- means cluster analysis, a robust multivariate technique in stream sediment geochemical exploration, a case study in Eastern part of Iran, Birjand

January 2011

  Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis (FCMC) applied to the results of a geochemical exploration project where 175 stream sediment samples were analyzed for 20 elements, using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRFS). The FCMC technique allowed to separate the dominant associations of lithologies and specified the background concentration for all lithotypes. It was found that the FCMC is a power tool for elimination...

Author(s): Mohammad Shiva, Ahmad Aryafar and Soheil Zaremotlagh

Comparison of rock units separation and fuzzy logic methods in neutralizing the syngentic effects in geochemical data, a case study in eastern part of Iran, Birjand

January 2011

  The elemental concentration variations in mineralization processes in the nature are mainly influenced by the syngenetic and epigenetic processes. By neutralizing the syngenetic effects, the epigenetic effects may delineate the mineralization of the interest elements. In the present study, two methods which were carried out in detecting the potential areas across the study area are compared; a) the...

Author(s): Ahmad Aryafar, Mohammad Shiva and Soheil Zaremotlagh

Geoelectric investigation of groundwater in Obaretin – Iyanomon locality, Edo state, Nigeria

January 2011

  Geoelectric investigation for underground water in Obaretin – Iyanomon and its environ was done using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method. Three vertical electrical sounding (VES 12, 14 and 28) data were acquired within the locations in the study area. Borehole data were also acquired. These were used in delineating the geoelectric sections. The study was carried out using the Schlumberger...

Author(s): O. M. Alile, O. Ujuanbi and I. A. Evbuomwan

Neotectonic stress field and deformation pattern within the Zagros and its adjoining area: An approach from finite element modeling

December 2010

  In this study, finite element modeling (FEM) is performed to analyze the Neotectonic stress field of Zagros fold-and-thrust belt and its adjoining areas. Our modeling results predict that the study area has somewhat complex stress orientation, deformational fashion and faulting pattern under oblique convergence tectonic setting. The modeled results demonstrate that the displacement vectors within the...

Author(s): Md. Shofiqul Islam, and Ryuichi Shinjo

Low grade metamorphosed sandstone-type uranium deposit, Wadi Sikait, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

November 2010

  Wadi Sikait (WNW-ESE) is one of the most famous emerald sites in the world, since Pharonic times. The exposed rocks are ophiolitic mélange (consists of mafic-ultramafic fragments set in metapelites matrix), metamorphosed sandstones, gabbros, granites and post-granite dykes (lamprophyres) and veins (quartz). The metamorphosed sandstone (MSS) rocks (vary from greywacke to arkosic in composition) outcrop...

Author(s): M. E. Ibrahim, G. M. Saleh and W. S. Ibrahim

Synkinematic ferro-potassic magmatism from the Mekwene-Njimafofire Foumban Massif, along the Foumban-Banyo shear zone in central domain of Cameroon Pan-African fold belt

November 2010

The ferriferous high-K calc-alkaline intrusive of the Mekwene-Njimafofire Foumban Massif, Central Cameroon, were synkinematically emplaced in a sinistral strike-slip shear zone of Pan-African age. The rock sequences consist of orthogneisses with abundant coarse- to medium-grained quartz monzodiorite, medium- to fine-grained quartz monzonite, granodiorite, and fine-grained biotite granite composition and cover a range of...

Author(s): Adjija Chare Nzina, Jean Paul Nzenti, Evine Laure Tanko Njiosseu,Sylvestre Ganno and Timoléon Ngnotue

Existence of “late continental” deposits in the Mbere and Djerem sedimentary basins (North Cameroon): Palynologic and stratigraphic evidence

November 2010

  Current palynologic and stratigraphic data presented in this paper, show the existence of Upper Tertiary to Lower Quaternary deposits in the Mbere and Djerem basins. The upper part, so called “Late Continental” deposits encounters different palynomorphs with angiosperms (Gramineae, Chenopodiaceae, Malvaceae and Compositeae), spores, fungi, gymnosperm and freshwater algae, which are of Late...

Author(s): Tchouatcha Milan Stafford, Njiké Ngaha Pierre Ricard, Mahmoud Magdy Salah, Deaf Amr Said and Ekodeck Georges Emmanuel

Kinematics of faults and joints at Enugu area of the Anambra basin

October 2010

  Structural analysis of joints and fault data obtained from exposures of the Enugu and Mamu formations formed the basis for establishing the paleostress direction and stress field rotation within the study area. Four sets of joints were dominant in the study area. Analysis of two conjugate sets: J1 and J2 separated by a dihedral angle of 40° shows that the maximum principal stress s1 at the...

Author(s): D. K. Amogu, A. C. Ekwe and K. M. Onuoha

Influence of rock mass properties on TBM penetration rate in Karaj-Tehran water conveyance tunnel

October 2010

  Predicting penetration rate (PR) of tunnel boring machine (TBM) due to the properties of rock mass surrounding tunnel has been an important subject in the mechanized method of excavating tunnel.  Influence of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), peak slope index (punch penetration), spacing of discontinuities (of weakness planes), orientation of discontinuities with...

Author(s): M. Mansouri and H. Moomivand

Estimation of near-field peak particle velocity - a mathematical model

September 2010

  Peak particle velocity (PPV) is an important parameter in estimation of rock and structural damage. In general, ground vibration is measured using a seismograph at a distance from the blast face to keep the instrument safe. However, rock damage due to blasting occurs very close to the blast hole and thus, PPV at the damaged zone can not be measured directly. In the far-field observations charge is considered...

Author(s): Shrey Arora and Kaushik Dey

Hydro-chemical study of groundwater from North-eastern parts of Gombe, North-eastern Nigeria

September 2010

  Twenty groundwater samples were collected from hand dug wells in North-Eastern parts of Gombe town for the purpose of evaluating its quality for culinary and agricultural uses. The area studied is bounded by latitude 11° 09’ - 11° 27’ and longitude 10° 15’ - 10° 27’ covering an area of about 940 Km2. Quantitative analysis of the water samples was carried out using...

Author(s): Arabi, Abdullahi Suleiman, Mohammad, Yerima, Kwaya and Tafida, Maryam

Isotope dilution with high pressure asher acid digestion for the determination of platinum group elements in chromitite from katpal chromite mine in the Sukinda Ultramafic Complex, Eastern India

September 2010

  Chromitite samples were collected from a core from the Katpal chromite mine of Sukinda chromite field for characterization of mineralogy especially the platinum group minerals (PGM). Isotope dilution with High Pressure Asher (HPA-ID) technique has been used in this study to evaluate its ability to determine compositions from small quantities of sample (two grams of sample). Enrichment of Iridium group of...

Author(s): P. V. Sunder Raju, R. K. W. Merkle, EVSSK Babu, M. Satyanaryanan , K. V. Anjaiah and S. K. Mohanthy

Selection of practical bench height in open pit mining using a multi-criteria decision making solution

July 2010

  Determination of practical bench height is an important subject in open pit mining. This subject has always been an issue with different and sometimes conflicting criteria that have to be precisely considered during the mine design process. In this study a multi-expert multi-criteria decision making approach is used to resolve these complexities. In the proposed approach, different bench heights are firstly...

Author(s):   Hossein Soltanmohammadi, Morteza Osanloo, Ali Sami and Shahnam Behnam Malekzadeh

Stability analysis method of perilous rock in source of avalanche

July 2010

  Perilous rocks are a potential geological disaster on cliffs and/or steep slopes and can initiate avalanches. They are classified into three types: Sliding perilous rocks, toppling perilous rocks and falling perilous rocks. Moreover, two subtypes of toppling perilous rocks are distinguished, one in which the upsetting point is outside of the center of gravity of the perilous rock, and one in which the...

Author(s): H. K. Chen and H. M. Tang,

Shortcomings in the standard continuum based Implicit Joint model of layered rocks

May 2010

Layered rock masses can be described efficiently using a continuum formulation. There are two distinctive continuum based formulations that are found in the published literatures e.g. conventional continuum formulation based models such as Ubiquitous Joint model and non conventional formulation based models such as Cosserat Continuum models. Such equivalent continuum models may provide reasonably accurate predictions...

Author(s): D. P. Adhikary

Paleoinformatics: The Superhighway to Modern Paleontology

February 2010

Author(s): Ashraf M. T. Elewa

Polyphase deformation and evidence for transpressive tectonics in the Kimbi area, northwestern Cameroon Pan-African fold belt

February 2010

  The structures of the Pan-African fold belt in North-western Cameroon (Kimbi area) are the result of a succession of several events. Petrographic description and detailed kinematical analysis of the various structures with emphasis on superposed folds discovered in the metamorphic and plutonic complex of Kimbi area provided detailed information on the structures and the relative timing of...

Author(s): Ganno Sylvestre, Nzenti Jean Paul, Ngnotue Timoléon, Kankeu Boniface, and Kouankap Nono Gus Djibril

Sandclass classification scheme for Ajali sandstone units in Ohafia area, Southeastern Nigeria

February 2010

  Twenty six (26) sandstone samples from the Ajali Formation in Ohafia area of southeastern Nigeria and two samples from the Gombe Formation in the Upper Benue valley, northeastern Nigeria, have been analysed for major elements and the results used in sandclass classification scheme. In the scheme, Log ratios of SiO2 /Al2O3 and Fe2O3/K2O, which express and relate geochemical fractions of sands to the...

Author(s): K. K. Ibe  and C. C. Z. Akaolisa 

The Role of Paleontology in the “Electronic Era”

December 2009

Author(s):  Ashraf M. T. Elewa

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