The utilization of small-scale irrigation schemes plays a significant role in addressing food security problems as a supplementary with rain-fed or irrigation agriculture in the basin and as a whole in the country. The conveyance efficiency values at Shina-Hamusit was 73%, while at Selamko it was 59%. These values showed that the conveyance loss is huge in both irrigation schemes, especially at Selamko that has canals maintenance as the major identified problem, resulting in water logging in the farmlands through seepage. The application efficiency of Shina-Hamusit ranges from 47 to 57%, while it ranges from 53 to 64% for Selamko. This indicates that, application efficiency at field level in Selamko is better than Shina-Hamusit. This may be associated with the farmer’s perception, type of crops grown and excess rainfall. Water users are responsible for the overall water management including maintenance of the main diversion in irrigation schemes. In the studied areas at Shina-Hamusit scheme, there is collection of water fee and the Woreda cooperatives promotion desk auditors have not held the documents and audited the accounts while at Selamko there is no water fee now, and no maintenance of canals; the reasons for this may be weak committee and delay of payments by the farmers. The Selamko local irrigation authority maybe suggested as reforming their institutional water management and taking of water fee before irrigation, and to observe the activities of the water use association and assist them in implementing efficient water management and water saving strategies. At Shina-Hamusit scheme, market and road accesses were the major constraints that make the scheme to be inefficient whereas at Selamko major constraints concentrated on upstream and downstream irrigation scheme maintenance, potato disease, water logging, as well as market constraints.
Key words: Conveyance efficiency, application efficiency, major constraints, water distribution and management, water fee.
BD, Bulk density; Ea, application efficiency; cm, Centimeter; Ec, conveyance efficiency; A, cross sectional area; 0, Degree; °C, degree centigrade; d, depth of root zone; DA, development agent; Q, discharge; E, east; FINIDA, Finnish International Development Assistance; V, flow velocity; FAO, food and agricultural organization; FC, field capacity; g/cm3, gram per centimeter cube; ha, hectare; IWMI, International Water Management Institute; Km, Kilo Meter; m.a.s.l., meter above sea level; m3, meter cubic; m2, meter square; mm, millimeter; N, north; No, number; %, percent; Sec, second; ULL, upper main canal; LMC, lower main canal; PWP, permanent wilting point; TAW, total available water; WUA, water use association.
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