African Journal of
Agricultural Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Agric. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1991-637X
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJAR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 6859

Full Length Research Paper

Impact of irrigation adoption on rural farmer’s welfare in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: A propensity score matching approach

Mzuyanda Christian
  • Mzuyanda Christian
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar
Ajuruchukwu Obi
  • Ajuruchukwu Obi
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 27 February 2018
  •  Accepted: 03 September 2018
  •  Published: 15 November 2018


Aliber M, Hall R (2009). The case for re-strategizing spending priorities to support small-scale farmers in South Africa‖, IDASA Conference, Governance and Small-scale Agriculture in South Africa' 9-11 November 2009.


Bacha D, Namara R, Bogale A, Tesfaye A (2011). Impact of Small-Scale Irrigation on Household Poverty: Empirical Evidence from the Ambo District in Ethiopia. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 60:1-10.


Bernard T, Gabre-Madhin EZ, Seyoum Taffesse A (2007). Smallholders commercialization through cooperatives: A diagnostic from Ethiopia. IFPRI Discussion Paper no. 722. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.


Burney JA, Naylor RL (2012). Smallholder irrigation as a poverty alleviation tool in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development 40:110-123.


Caliendo M, Kopeinig S (2008). Some practical guidance for the implementation of propensity score matching. Journal of Economic Surveys 22(1):31-72.


Cousins B (2013). Smallholder Irrigation Schemes, Agrarian Reform and Accumulation from Above and from Below' in South Africa. Journal of Agrarian Change 13(1):116-139.


De Cock N, D'Haese M, Vink N, van Rooyen CJ, Staelens L, Schonfeldt HC, Haese LD (2013). Food security in rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa. Journal of Food Security 5:269-282.


Department of Agriculture (2008), Land and Agrarian Reform Project – The Concept Document.


Department of Agriculture (2001). The Strategic Plan for South African Agriculture, Department of Agriculture, Government of South Africa, Pretoria.


Dillon A (2011). The effect of irrigation on poverty reduction, asset accumulation, and informal insurance: Evidence from Northern Mali. World Development 39(12):2165-2175.


Fanadzo M, Chiduza C, Mnkeni PNS (2010). Overview of smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: Relationship between farmer crop management practices and performance. African Journal of Agricultural Research 25:3514-3523.


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010) FAOSTAT online database. URL: 



Gebregziabher G, Namara R, Holden S (2009). Poverty reduction with irrigation investment: An empirical case study from Tigray, Ethiopia. Agricultural Water Management 96:1837-1848.


Godtland E, Sadoulet E, de Janvry A, Murgai R, Ortiz O (2004). The Impact of Farmer Field School on Knowledge and Productivity: A Study of Potato Farmers in the Peruvian Andes. Economic Development and Cultural Change 53(1):63-92.


Heckman J, Ichukuma H, Smith J, Todd P (1996a). Sources for selection Bias in Evaluating Social programs: An interpretation of Conventional Measures and evidence on the effectiveness of matching as a program evaluation method, proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:13416-13420


Kuwornu J, Owusu E (2012). Irrigation access and per capita consumption in farm households: Evidence from Ghana. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics 4(3):78-92.


Magingxa LL (2006). Smallholder Irrigators and the Role of Markets: A New Institutional Approach, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of the Free State.


Makhura M, Mokoena M (2003). Market Access for Small-Scale Farmers in South Africa‖, in L. Nieuwoudt and J. Groenewald (eds.) The Challenges of Change: Agriculture, Land and the South African Economy, Natal, University of Natal Press.


Mnkeni PNS, Chiduza C, Modi AT, Stevens JB, Monde N, Van der stoep I, Dladla RW (2010). Best manage¬ment practices for smallholder farming on two irrigation schemes in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal through participatory adaptive research. WRC. WRC Report No. TT 478/10, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa.


Obi A, Pote P (2011). Technical constraints to market access for crop and livestock farmers in Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape province: Book Title: Unlocking markets to smallholders: Book Subtitle: Lessons from South Africa: Pages pp 91-112: 


Obi A (2011). Institutional constraints to small farmer development in Southern Africa. Wageningen Academic Publishers: The Netherlands ISBN: 978-90-8686-132-3: e-ISBN: 978-90-8686-704-2: 


Obi A (2006). "Trends in South African agricultural land prices", PhD thesis, University of The Free State, South Africa.


Pauw K (2005). Quantifying the Economic Divide in South African Agriculture: An Income-Side Analysis, Provide Project Working Paper 3, 2005, Elsenburg.


Perry A (2012). Rural homestead design and permaculture, South Africa‖, Sustainable Settlements Articles P 6.


Pote PPT (2008). Technical constraints to smallholder farming‖, Master's Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.


Ravallion M (2001). Growth, Inequality and Poverty: Looking Beyond Averages. World Development 29(11):1803-1815.


Ridoutt BG, Pfister S (2013). A new water footprint calcula¬tion method integrating consumptive and degradative water use into a single stand-alone weighted indicator. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 18:204-207.


Rukuni M (1984). Cropping patterns and productivity on smallholder irrigation schemes. In: Blackie, M.J. (editor) African regional symposium on smallholder irrigation. University of Zimbabwe.


Senyolo GM, Chaminuka P, Makhura MN, Belete A (2009), 'Patterns of access and utilization of output markets by emerging farmers in South Africa: A factor analysis approach', African Journal of Agricultural Research 4:208-214.


Sinyolo S (2013). The impact of smallholder irrigation and water security on household welfare: The case of Tugela Ferry irrigation scheme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Published MSc Thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, RSA.


Sithole NL, Lagat JK, Masuku MB (2014). Factors Influencing Farmers Participation in Smallholder Irrigation Schemes: The Case of Ntonjeni Rural Development Area. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 5(22):2014.


Smith J, Todd P (2005). Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators? Journal of Econometrics 125(1-2):303-353.


Tesfaye A, Bogale A, Namara R, Bacha D (2008). The impact of small-scale irrigation on household food security: The case of Filtino and Godino irrigation schemes in Ethiopia. Irrigation Drainage Systems 22(2):145-158.


United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2009). Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results, UNDP, New York, US.


UNESCO-WWAP (2006). Water: A shared responsibility. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2. URL: 



Van Schalkwyk HD, Groenewald J, Jooste A (2003). Agricultural Marketing in South Africa‖, in L. Nieuwoudt and J. Groenewald (eds.) The Challenges of Change: Agriculture, Land and the South African Economy, Natal, University of Natal Press 291.


Vongai GM, Thamaga-Chitja JM (2018). Livelihood assets and institutions for smallholder irrigation farmer market access in Limpopo, South Africa, International Journal of Water Resources Development 34(2):259-277.