African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 18 October 2010; 9(42)

October 2010

Some applications of thermophiles and their enzymes for protein processing

Proteolytic enzymes produced by thermophiles are of considerable interest because they are stable and active at elevated temperatures. Moreover, they are resistant to organic solvents, detergents, low and high pH and other denaturants. Such properties allow many technological processes. Advantages of thermozymes applications are reduced risk of microbial contamination, increased mass transfer, lower viscosity and...

Author(s): Józef Synowiecki

October 2010

Viability assessment of in vitro produced synthetic seeds of cucumber

Friable, embryogenic calli of F1 cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivar, Royal, were induced from the hypocotyl pieces cultured on solidified MS-basal media supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and benzyl amino purine (BAP). Embryogenic calli were transferred to liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS)-basal media supplemented with 5 µM naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1 µM BAP. The...

Author(s): Bushra Tabassum, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Abdul Munim Farooq, Ziaur Rehman, Zakia Latif and Tayyab Husnain

October 2010

Effect of progressive water deficit stress on proline accumulation and protein profiles of leaves in chickpea

Water deficit stress is one of the important factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi-arid regions of West Asia and North Africa. When water deficit stress is imposed, different molecular and biochemical responses take place. This study was carried out to investigate proline accumulation and protein profiles of leaves in three chickpea cultivars under normal watering (I1: irrigation based on 70 mm...

Author(s): Abdollah Najaphy , Nahid Niari khamssi, Ali Mostafaie and Hosein Mirzaee

October 2010

Weeds of onion fields and effects of some herbicides on weeds in Cukurova region, Turkey

Weeds are one of the most important problems in onion (Allium cepa L.) production areas, since onion plants are poor competitors. This study was conducted in order to identify the weed species in onion fields in Cukurova Region, establish the effects of some herbicides on weeds and the yield of onion in reducing the existing phytotoxicity problem on onion plants between 2006 and 2007. A total of 105 weed species...

Author(s): Sibel Uygur, Ramazan Gürbüz and F. Nezihi Uygur

October 2010

Effects of Aspergillus niger (K8) on nutritive value of rice straw

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of solid state fermentation for the improvement of the quality of rice straw as animal feed. Rice straw was fermented using Aspergillus niger (K8) with and without additional nitrogen source (urea). Cellulose, hemicelluloses, organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL)...

Author(s): M. F. Jahromi,  J. B. Liang, M. Rosfarizan, Y. M. Goh, P. Shokryazdanand Y. W. Ho

October 2010

Rosemary wilting disease and its management by soil solarization technique in Iran

Wilting disease on Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), an ornamental-medical plant, was studied from 2007 - 2009 in Mashhad, north-east Iran. Different Rosemary fields in this area were visited and root samples of the infected plants and soil around the roots were collected and transferred to laboratory. Samples were cultured on CMA, PDA and WA media and isolated fungi were identified. Three fungal...

Author(s): S. J. Ashrafi, M. F. Rastegar and H. Saremi

October 2010

Embryo rescue as a method to develop and multiply a backcross population of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) from an interspecific cross of Manihot esculenta ssp. flabellifolia

Cassava is one of the most planted tuber crops in the tropical world. The importance of cassava is growing as a food security crop in sub Saharan Africa, where malnutrition is a menace. However, a major hindrance in the fast improvement of the crop is the long generational cycle of cassava and poor germination of the seeds, and the low multiplication rate of the stem cuttings. In vitro germination of 495 seeds...

Author(s): O. Akinbo, M. Labuschagne and M. Fregene

October 2010

Preliminary study on cryopreservation of Dendrobium Bobby Messina protocorm- like bodies by vitrification

Protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium Bobby Messina were cryopreserved by vitrification method. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with the size range of 1-2 and 3-4 mm were selected from 4 weeks old culture, pretreated with half strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose at 25°C for 24 h. Pretreated PLBs were then treated with a mixture of 2 M glycerol and...

Author(s): Jessica Jeyanthi James Antony, Chan Lai Keng, Xavier Rathinam, Uma Rani Sinniah and Sreeramanan Subramaniam

October 2010

High efficiency protoplast isolation from in vitro cultures and hairy roots of Maesa lanceolata

In vitro cultures of the medicinal plant Maesa lanceolata were established to enable the cultivation of plant material for the production of protoplasts. Callus cultures were initiated using leaves collected from shoot cultures and the root tips from hairy root cultures obtained upon Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. For the isolation of protoplasts, the different explant material...

Author(s): E. Lambert and D. Geelen

October 2010

Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soil using the chemical-biological stabilization process

Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the chemical-biological stabilization treatment method. Remediation efficiency was measured in terms of overall hydrocarbon...

Author(s): Tila M. Mayo-López, Randy H. Adams, Verónica I. Domínguez-Rodríguez and Francisco J. Guzmán-Osorio

October 2010

Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell

The cleaning of our environment should be carried out with the use of natural products instead of chemicals so as to reduce pollution. This study investigates the potential of an agricultural waste in scavenging heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. The role of pH in the removal of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solution by bio-sorption using African white star apple was...

Author(s): F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah

October 2010

Aerobic biodegradation of butanol and diesel oil blends

This work aimed to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of butanol/diesel oil blends (5, 10, 15, 20%, v/v) in comparison to the biodiesel/diesel oil blend (20%, v/v). Respirometric experiments simulating the contamination of natural environments (soil and water from a river) were carried out in biometer flasks (250 mL) used to measure microbial carbon dioxide (CO2) production. The automated turbidimeter Bioscreen C...

Author(s): Adriano Pinto Mariano, Richard Clayton Tomasella, Clara Di Martino, Eduardo Beraldo Morais, Rubens Maciel Filho, Mirna Helena Regali Seleghim, Jonas Contiero, Sâmia Maria Tauk Tornisielo, Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis

October 2010

Drinking water quality in Rohri City, Sindh, Pakistan

Groundwater and surface water samples from Rohri city were analyzed for the presence of total coliform (TC), E. coli (Ec) and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). The samples were collected before and after storage. The bacteriological analysis was carried out by membrane filtration and spread plate count (SPC) technique. The pre-storage ground water samples were found to be contaminated with TC (25%), Ec (12.5%)...

Author(s): Abdul Hussain Shar, Yasmeen Faiz Kazi, Nisar Ahmed Kanhar, Irshad Hussain Soomro, Syed Maqsood Zia  and Pir Bux Ghumro

October 2010

Effects of fractionation on antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Tamarindus indica

Column chromatographic fractionation of the crude ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica yielded six fractions (TiA - TiF). Among these, TiB showed about five tracks: TiC, TiD and TiE, two tracks each, on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fractions TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems and each yielded two sub-fractions, while fraction TiB yielded four. All fractions...

Author(s): U. U. Nwodo, A. A. Ngene, C. U. Iroegbu and Obiiyeke GC

October 2010

Production of Ogi from germinated sorghum supplemented with soybeans

Three varieties of sorghum grains were germinated before fermentation to Ogi. The protein and ash contents of Sorghum vulgare, Sorghum guineensis and Sorghum bicolor increased by 7.20 and 40.20%; 5.44 and 29.20%; and 4.00 and 42.18% respectively. Fermentation of the germinated grains however caused decreases in the protein, ash, fibre and fat contents. Supplementation of oven-dried (60%) powder with...

Author(s): A. O. Adelekan and O. B. Oyewole

October 2010

Ragi tapai and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential coculture in viscous fermentation medium for ethanol production

A comparison study on the ethanol production from 20% (w/v) of unhydrolyzed raw cassava starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis was performed and compared with the commercialized ragi tapai. The findings showed that S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis and ragi tapai produced 23, 20 mg/l and 26 g/l of ethanol in 72 h, respectively. Subsequent coculturing of the two best...

Author(s): Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Maizirwan Mel and Masitah Hasan

October 2010

Serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of ethanolic extract of whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora (Benth) Roberty in Wistar rats

Toxicological evaluation of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora was carried out using the serum biochemical changes accompanying prolonged administration of the ethanolic extract of the fruit in Wistar rats. Twenty five rats were randomly but equally divided into five groups. Rats in groups B, C, D and E were administered with ethanolic extract at 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 mg/kg body weight, respectively,...

Author(s): Adebowale Bernard Saba, Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi and Elizabeth Olamide Alao

October 2010

Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 isolated from Goan mullet inhibit bacterial fish pathogens

Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as Acinetobacter sp. An2, Aeromonas hydrophila strain An4,...

Author(s): Anju Pandey, Milind M. Naik and S. K. Dubey

October 2010

Effects of Potassium Iodate Application on the Biomass and Iodine concentration of Selected Indigenous Nigerian Vegetables

Iodine is a trace element in soil and water that is involved in some important metabolic functions in human development. In many areas of the world, the surface soil becomes progressively poorer in iodide through accelerated deforestation, flooding and soil erosion. Hence, the food grown in iodine deficient regions can never provide enough iodine for the people and livestock living there. This study was aimed at...

Author(s): Ujowundu C. O., Ukoha A. I., Agha C.N., Nwachukwu N., Igwe K.O. and Kalu F.N.

October 2010

Protective effect of Euphorbia neriifolia saponin fraction on CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity

The present investigation aims at assessing the hepatoprotective effect of saponin fraction isolated from the leaf of Euphorbia neriifolia on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity on rat. CCl4 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p) is a potent hepatotoxic agent, which induces peroxidative degeneration of membrane lipids causing hypoperfusion of the membrane. Cytosolic enzymes like SGPT, SGOT and ALP elevates in the blood and hepatic...

Author(s): Papiya Bigoniya and A. C. Rana

October 2010

Prevalence and temporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infections in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

The aim of the present study iwas to determine the trend, current prevalence and contributing risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium infections in the Vhembe district, South Africa. A retrospective analysis of previous S. heamatobium data at the hospitals was conducted. A survey was conducted with the use of questionnaires and urine samples collected from hospitals, university students as well as primary...

Author(s): A. Samie, D. J. Nchachi, C. L. Obi and E. O. Igumbor

October 2010

Evaluation of the spouted bed dried leaf extract of Bauhinia forficata for the treatment of experimental diabetes in rats

Previously, we have demonstrated that treatment of experimental diabetes with a decoction of Bauhinia forficata leaves is beneficial. In this study, we prepared a two-fold concentrate of this extract and tested its effects on physiological, biochemical and toxicity markers in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Dried and ground leaves were extracted with warm 70% hydroethanol and the filtrate concentrated by...

Author(s): M. T. Pepato, C. Q. Conceição, V. O. Gutierres, R. C. Vendramini, C. R. F. Souza, W. P. Oliveira and I. L. Brunetti

October 2010

In vitro shoot regeneration of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) using different cytokinins

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) is an important vegetable, spice and medicinal legume plant used as fresh and dried leaves and seeds in many parts of the world. Fenugreek seeds contain polysaccharide galactomannan and different saponins and have anti-microbial activity. The study presents an efficient shoot regeneration protocols from 8 - 10 days old in vitro grown cotyledon node explants...

Author(s): Muhammad Aasim, Nazim Hussain, Ejaz Muhammad Umer, Muhammad Zubair, Syed Bilal Hussain, Shafqat Saeed, Tahir Shahzad Rafique and Cengiz Sancak

October 2010

Use of recombinant CFP-10 protein for a skin test specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

Although the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to tuberculin is used worldwide for tuberculosis (TB) detection, it has poor diagnostic specificity due to the presence of common antigens in tuberculin shared by many mycobacterial species. The problem is noticed, especially in countries where the Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG) vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, a new skin test antigen...

Author(s): Xueqiong Wu, Shisheng Feng, Haiqing Duan, Lingxia Zhang, Junxian Zhang, Yourong Yang, Yan Liang and Yingchang Shi

October 2010

Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B1a production during fed-batch fermentation on industrial scale (150 m3)

Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1abiosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy. In the glucose feeding phase, OUR was maintained at approximate 12 mmol/L/h, which was conducive...

Author(s): Jian-Guang Liang, Xiao-He Chu, Ju Chu, Yong-Hong Wang, Ying-Ping Zhuang and Si-Liang Zhang

October 2010

Oxytetracycline residues in cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. 1758) tissues

This research was carried out in order to determine residue depletion of oxytetracycline HCl in the muscle, skin, liver and spleen of healthy sea bream (Sparus aurata) which were stocked in floating net cage in Aegean Sea after oxytetracycline treatments (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th, 10th, 14th, 15th, 19th, 20th, 24th, 25th, 29th, 30th, 37th and 44th day). Oxytetracycline was given to fish once a day (75 mg/kg living...

Author(s): Fikri Balta and Haşmet Çağırgan

October 2010

Cytotoxic compounds from a marine actinomycete, Streptomyces albovinaceus var. baredar AUBN10/2

Marine sediment samples from Machilipatnam (Krishna District, A.P) coast off Bay of Bengal, India were investigated as a source of actinomycetes to screen for the production of novel bioactive compounds. More than 10,000 bioactive compounds have been described from marine actinomycetes, with many different properties, ranging from colour pigments to cytotoxic compounds. The search for cytotoxic compounds is continuing...

Author(s): Adinarayana Gorajana, Ellaiah Poluri and Axel Zeeck

October 2010

In vitro screening of antimicrobial activity of extracts of some macroalgae collected from Abu-Qir bay Alexandria, Egypt

Ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of nine marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta) from Abu-Qir bay (Alexandria, Egypt) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion methods against pathogenic microbes (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus aureus as gram-positive bacteria, and (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella...

Author(s): M. E. H. Osman, A. M. Abushady and M. E. Elshobary

October 2010

Morphological study of pancreatic duct in red jungle fowl

Morphological and histochemical study of the pancreas and pancreatic ducts of ten adult red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus) were carried out by means of light microscopy. The bulk of the pancreas consists of a dorsal, ventral, third and small splenic lobe. Three pancreatic ducts were recognized as they join the proximal end of the ascending duodenum. The exocrine units were composed of main pancreatic tissues,...

Author(s): Khalid K. Kadhim, A. B. Z. Zuki, M. M. Noordin and S. M. A. Babjee and Zamri-Saad, M

October 2010

Protective role of flaxseed oil against lead acetate induced oxidative stress in testes of adult rats

Even though the toxic effects of lead compounds had been studied over many years, inconsistent results have been obtained about their oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) alters the histology of testes as well as enhances lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and testes with concomitant reduction in glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT),...

Author(s): Ahmed E. Abdel Moniem, Mohamed A. Dkhil, and Saleh Al-Quraishy